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2016 Powertrain Product Portfolio

Select below to explore the many engines and transmissions that we offer.

To view which GM vehicle applications go with an engine and/or transmission, please refer to the 2016 Product Guide.

Click below for vehicle brand home pages.

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The L20 4.8L provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L20 quiet and smooth. To further reduce wear, the pistons are coated with a polymer material that limits bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston's up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston's movement. The result for the customer is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 4.8L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. The high-performance cylinder heads support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The L20 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Vortec 4.8L V-8 (L20)

Vortec 4.8L V-8 (L20)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Vortec 4.8L V-8 (L20) is the entry-level V-8 engine. One of the enablers of the 4.8L's balance of performance and efficiency is great airflow throughout. The 4.8L is powerful and delivers exceptional refinement to go with great strength. Quiet features built into the engine are complemented by an improved engine cradle and mounting system. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

Type: 4.8L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 4807cc (293 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 8.8:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves (2 valves per cylinder)
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Silao, Mexico
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 96.01 x 83mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: Applications:
Regular unleaded Chevrolet Express ( Cutaway ) , GMC Savana ( Cutaway )
Regular unleaded and E85 Flex Fuel Chevrolet Silverado, Express ( Passenger, Cargo )
Regular unleaded and E85 Flex Fuel GMC Sierra, Savana ( Passenger, Cargo )
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 RPM
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Express > 10,000 lbs 285 hp ( 213 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express < = 10,000 lbs 285 hp ( 213 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana > 10,000 lbs 285 hp ( 213 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana < = 10,000 lbs 285 hp ( 213 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Express > 10,000 lbs 295 lb-ft ( 400 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express < = 10,000 lbs 295 lb-ft ( 400 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana > 10,000 lbs 295 lb-ft ( 400 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana < = 10,000 lbs 295 lb-ft ( 400 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
MATERIALS
Block: Cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder Metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: Electronic throttle control
E85 Flex Fuel
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder block


The all-new Gen-V cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM’s original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The bore and stroke dimensions are 3.92-inch (99.6 mm) bore x 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke (262 cubic inches) for the 4.3L.

Compared to the Gen-IV engine, the Gen-V’s aluminum cylinder block casting is all-new, but based on the same basic architecture. It was refined and modified to accommodate the mounting of the engine-driven fuel pump and vacuum pump. It also incorporates new engine mount attachments, new knock sensor locations, improved sealing and oil-spray piston cooling.

Oiling System


The oiling system is revised and features a new, dual-pressure-control and variable-displacement vane pump with increased flow capacity. As with the Gen-III/Gen-IV engines, the oil pump is driven by the crankshaft. Variable displacement enables the pump to efficiently deliver oil pump flow as demanded. Dual pressure-control enables operation at a very efficient oil pressure at lower rpm coordinated with the Active Fuel Management and operation at a higher pressure at higher engine speeds providing a more robust lube system with aggressive engine operation.

All Gen-V engines are designed to be used with GM’s Dexos semi-synthetic motor oil. “Thinner” oil is used, too, which helps reduce friction to enhance efficiency. The 4.3L V-6 uses 5W30 oil, held in a six-quart aluminum oil pan.

Oil-Spray Piston Cooling


All Gen-V engines feature oil-spray piston cooling, in which eight oil-spraying jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability. The extra layer of oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Rotating assembly and windage tray


Within the 4.3L's block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and 6.125-inch-long, powder-metal connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The connecting rods have a new profile that enhances strength.

The pistons are lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker. They also have a unique head topography that is essential to the direct injection system. The “bowl” and shape of the top of the piston head is designed to promote thorough mixing of the air and fuel – a dished center section helps direct the fuel spray from the injector – to ensure complete combustion, which improves performance and efficiency, particularly on cold starts.

The crankshaft in the Gen-V small block is located with new nodular main bearing caps – a significant upgrade over more conventional grey iron main caps. Nodular caps are stronger and can better absorb vibrations and other harmonics to help produce smoother, quieter performance.

A redesigned windage tray is also used with the Gen-V engine, which features a new oil scraper design. This enhances performance and efficiency by improving oil flow control and bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The cylinder block an main bearing caps maintain the optimal cranksase “windows” that were perfected on the Gen-IV engine.

PCV-Integrated Rocker Covers


One of the most distinctive features of the Gen V family is its domed rocker covers, which house a patent-pending, integrated positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system that enhances oil economy and oil life, while reducing oil consumption and contributing to low emissions. The rocker covers also hold the direct-mount ignition coils for the coil-near-plug ignition system. Between the individual coil packs, the domed sections of the covers contain baffles that separate oil and air from the crankcase gases – about three times the oil/air separation capability of previous engines.

Camshaft Design


Also rotating inside the engine block is a hydraulic roller-lifter camshaft. Compared to the Gen-IV small-block, the camshaft remains in the same position relative to the crankshaft and is used with a new rear cam bearing. The camshaft also features an all-new “trilobe” to drive the engine-mounted, high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection combustion system.

The camshaft specifications for the 4.3L include: 12.7/12.5mm (0.500/0.492-inch) intake/exhaust lift, 193/199-crank angle degrees intake/exhaust duration at 0.050-inch tappet lift and 113-degree cam angle lobe separation.

Dual-Equal Cam Phasing


All Gen V engines feature dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing), which works with Active Fuel Management to enhance fuel economy, while also maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions.

A vane-type phaser is installed on the front of the camshaft to change its angular orientation relative to the sprocket, thereby adjusting the timing of valve operation on the fly. It is a dual-equal cam phasing system that adjusts camshaft timing at the same rate for both intake and exhaust valves. The system allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The vane phaser is actuated by hydraulic pressure and flow from engine oil, and managed by a solenoid that controls oil flow to the phaser.

Cylinder Head Design


The Gen-V small-block’s all-new cylinder head design builds on the excellent, racing-proven airflow attributes of previous small-block heads and matches it with an all-new direct-injection combustion system. It supports tremendous airflow at higher rpm for a broad horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Compared to the Gen-IV cylinder head design, the Gen-V head features a smaller, 59.18cc combustion chamber on the 4.3L, which is designed to complement the volume of the piston’s dish. The smaller chamber size and dished pistons work together to produce an 11.0:1 compression ratio. The spark plug angle and depth have been modified to protrude farther into the chamber, placing the electrode closer to the center of the combustion to support the direct injection system.

In addition to the new combustion chamber design, the Gen-V head features large, straight and rectangular intake ports that feature a slight twist to enhance mixture motion. This is complemented by a reversal of the intake and exhaust valve positions as compared to the Gen-IV design. The exhaust port shapes are optimized for the new valve locations, with new port opening locations at the manifold face.

Large, lightweight intake and exhaust valves are used in the aluminum alloy heads, including 1.93-inch (49mm) intake and 1.56-inch (39.5mm) exhaust valves for the 4.3L

The lightweight valves enable the engine to rev quickly and capably to greater than 6,000 rpm. The valves are held at new, 12.6-degree intake/12.1-degree exhaust angles vs. the Gen-IV’s 15-degree angle. Additionally, the valves are splayed to reduce shrouding and enable greater airflow.

Valvetrain components include durable valve springs and roller-pivot rocker arms with a 1.8 ratio – the amount of movement on the valve side of the rocker arm in comparison with the pushrod side. And speaking of pushrods, the Gen-V small-block features stiffer, larger-diameter 8.7mm (outside diameter) that provide greater stiffness than the previous 7.9mm design. This enables improved high-speed valvetrain dynamic performance.

Direct Injection


Direct injection is featured on all Gen-V engines. This technology moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions.

The pistons play an integral role in the direct injection system, as they feature dished heads designed to direct the fuel spray for a more complete combustion. Design of this advanced combustion system was optimized after thousands of hours of computational analysis, representing one of the most comprehensively engineered combustion systems ever developed by General Motors.

High-Pressure Fuel Pump


The direct injection system features very high fuel pressure, up to 15Mpa (150bar), requiring a high-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump in addition to a conventional, fuel-tank-mounted pump. On all Gen V engines, the pump is mounted in the “valley” between cylinder heads – beneath the intake manifold. It is driven by the camshaft at the rear of the engine.

A “soft stop” control strategy for the pump’s internal solenoid significantly reduces the characteristic “ticking” sound of direct injection systems. Mounting the pump in valley, where it is covered by an acoustically treated intake manifold, also helps reduce noise, while also maintaining the tight, compact packaging for which all small-blocks have been known.

Expanded Active Fuel Management Operation


GM’s fuel-saving Active Fuel Management (AFM) technology is standard on all Gen-V engines and expands the range of operation by more than 10 percent over the Gen-IV family. AFM temporarily deactivates two cylinders on the 4.3L V-6 under light load conditions – effectively operating as a V-4 – and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. When cylinders are deactivated, the engine’s pumping work is reduced, which translates into real-world fuel economy improvements. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds and is virtually imperceptible.

A new dual-mode oil pump enables Gen-V engines to engage AFM earlier than Gen-IV applications, helping enhance fuel economy. Greater engine power and torque, improved vehicle aerodynamics, lower tire rolling resistance and enhanced integration of the powertrain in the vehicles also contribute to the expanded operation.

Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds feature saw cuts along their cylinder head mounting flange, which split the flange into three separate sections on the 4.3L, allowing each section to move under extreme hot-cold temperature fluctuations without interacting with, or creating stress on, another section. The cuts virtually eliminate friction on and movement of the exhaust manifold gaskets, helping ensure proper sealing for the life of the engine and reducing the chance of gasket failure.

High-Flow Intake Manifold and Electronic Throttle


The Gen-V’s intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head, while also accommodating the high-pressure fuel pump for the direct injection system, which is mounted in the valley area between the cylinder heads. It is a composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional “skull cap” acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise, as well as fuel pump noise.

An electronically controlled throttle is mounted to the intake manifold. It is a single-bore design with a 72mm on the 4.3L and features a “contactless” design that is more durable and enables greater control.

Cooling System


The Gen-V’s cooling system is redesigned, compared to the Gen-IV engine and features a new offset water pump and thermostat.

58X Ignition System


The Gen-V has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft’s position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

Additional Features


Electronic Power Steering: All Gen V engines have Electronic Power Steering and do not incorporate a conventional, hydraulic power steering system in its accessory-drive system. This enhances both performance and fuel efficiency.

Vacuum Pump: The 4.3L, 5.3L and 6.2L truck engines feature a mechanical vacuum pump to enhance braking performance. It is an engine-driven pump.

Air Induction Humidity Sensor: This new feature ensures optimal combustion efficiency, regardless of the surrounding air’s humidity.

E-85 Capability: The 4.3L and 5.3L truck engines are E-85-capable, allowing them to run on E85 ethanol, gasoline or any combination of the two fuels.

Coil-on-Plug Ignition: The Gen-V’s individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils that are compact and mounted on the rocker covers, although they are positioned differently than on Gen-IV engine. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Iridium-Tip Spark Plugs: The spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor, offering higher internal resistance while maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency.

E92 Engine Controller


Operation and performance of the Gen-V is overseen by an all-new engine controller.




Overview

The fifth generation of the iconic GM small block engine family features the same cam-in-block architecture and 4.400-inch bore centers (the distance between the centers of each cylinder) that were born with the original small block in 1955.

Dubbed EcoTec3 in the new trucks – including a 4.3L V-6, 5.3L V-8 and 6.2L V-8 – the Gen-V engine family delivers greater efficiency, performance and durability, thanks to a combination of advanced technologies including direct injection, Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing) that support an advanced combustion system.

Structurally, the Gen-V small-block is similar to the Gen III/IV engines, including a deep-skirt cylinder block. Refinements and new or revised components are used throughout, including a revised cooling system and all-new cylinder heads. The engine is also designed to accommodate an engine-driven high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection system.

Type: 5.3L Gen V V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 5328cc (325 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 11.0:1
Valve configuration: overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Tonawanda, NY and St. Catherines, Ontario
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 96.01 x 92mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Regular unleaded and E85
E85 Applications All
Maximum Engine Speed: 5800 rpm
Emissions controls: catalytic converter
three-way catalyst
positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
355 hp (265 kW) @ 5600 Rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Tahoe
Chevrolet Suburban
GMC Yukon, Yukon XL
355 hp (265 kW) @ 5600 Rpm Estimate
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
376 hp (280 kW) @ 5600 Rpm SAE Certified - E85
Chevrolet Tahoe
Chevrolet Suburban
GMC Yukon, Yukon XL
376 hp (280 kW) @ 5600 Rpm Estimate - E85
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
383 lb-ft. (519 Nm) @ 4100 Rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Tahoe
Chevrolet Suburban
GMC Yukon, Yukon XL
383 lb-ft. (519 Nm) @ 4100 Rpm Estimate
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
416 lb-ft. (564 Nm) @ 4000 Rpm SAE Certified - E85
Chevrolet Tahoe
Chevrolet Suburban
GMC Yukon, Yukon XL
416 lb-ft. (564 Nm) @ 4000 Rpm Estimate - E85
MATERIALS
Block: Cast Aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast Nodular Iron
Main bearing caps: Powder Metal
Crankshaft: Cast Nodular Iron
Camshaft: Billet Steel
Connecting rods: Forged Powder Metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
E85 Flex Fuel
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Dexos 0W20
Dual-pressure control and variable displacement oil pump
58x crank timing
Chevrolet Silverado (All Cabs) Transmission
MYC-6L80
Chevrolet Suburban Transmission
MYC-6L80
Chevrolet Tahoe, Tahoe PPV Transmission
MYC-6L80
GMC Sierra (All Cabs)
MYC-6L80
GMC Yukon
MYC-6L80
Yukon Denali
MYC-6L80

Cylinder block


The all-new Gen-V cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM’s original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The bore and stroke dimensions are 3.92-inch (99.6 mm) bore x 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke (262 cubic inches) for the 4.3L.

Compared to the Gen-IV engine, the Gen-V’s aluminum cylinder block casting is all-new, but based on the same basic architecture. It was refined and modified to accommodate the mounting of the engine-driven fuel pump and vacuum pump. It also incorporates new engine mount attachments, new knock sensor locations, improved sealing and oil-spray piston cooling.

Oiling System


The oiling system is revised and features a new, dual-pressure-control and variable-displacement vane pump with increased flow capacity. As with the Gen-III/Gen-IV engines, the oil pump is driven by the crankshaft. Variable displacement enables the pump to efficiently deliver oil pump flow as demanded. Dual pressure-control enables operation at a very efficient oil pressure at lower rpm coordinated with the Active Fuel Management and operation at a higher pressure at higher engine speeds providing a more robust lube system with aggressive engine operation.

All Gen-V engines are designed to be used with GM’s Dexos semi-synthetic motor oil. “Thinner” oil is used, too, which helps reduce friction to enhance efficiency. The 4.3L V-6 uses 5W30 oil, held in a six-quart aluminum oil pan.

Oil-Spray Piston Cooling


All Gen-V engines feature oil-spray piston cooling, in which eight oil-spraying jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability. The extra layer of oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Rotating assembly and windage tray


Within the 4.3L's block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and 6.125-inch-long, powder-metal connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The connecting rods have a new profile that enhances strength.

The pistons are lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker. They also have a unique head topography that is essential to the direct injection system. The “bowl” and shape of the top of the piston head is designed to promote thorough mixing of the air and fuel – a dished center section helps direct the fuel spray from the injector – to ensure complete combustion, which improves performance and efficiency, particularly on cold starts.

The crankshaft in the Gen-V small block is located with new nodular main bearing caps – a significant upgrade over more conventional grey iron main caps. Nodular caps are stronger and can better absorb vibrations and other harmonics to help produce smoother, quieter performance.

A redesigned windage tray is also used with the Gen-V engine, which features a new oil scraper design. This enhances performance and efficiency by improving oil flow control and bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The cylinder block an main bearing caps maintain the optimal cranksase “windows” that were perfected on the Gen-IV engine.

PCV-Integrated Rocker Covers


One of the most distinctive features of the Gen V family is its domed rocker covers, which house a patent-pending, integrated positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system that enhances oil economy and oil life, while reducing oil consumption and contributing to low emissions. The rocker covers also hold the direct-mount ignition coils for the coil-near-plug ignition system. Between the individual coil packs, the domed sections of the covers contain baffles that separate oil and air from the crankcase gases – about three times the oil/air separation capability of previous engines.

Camshaft Design


Also rotating inside the engine block is a hydraulic roller-lifter camshaft. Compared to the Gen-IV small-block, the camshaft remains in the same position relative to the crankshaft and is used with a new rear cam bearing. The camshaft also features an all-new “trilobe” to drive the engine-mounted, high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection combustion system.

The camshaft specifications for the 4.3L include: 12.7/12.5mm (0.500/0.492-inch) intake/exhaust lift, 193/199-crank angle degrees intake/exhaust duration at 0.050-inch tappet lift and 113-degree cam angle lobe separation.

Dual-Equal Cam Phasing


All Gen V engines feature dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing), which works with Active Fuel Management to enhance fuel economy, while also maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions.

A vane-type phaser is installed on the front of the camshaft to change its angular orientation relative to the sprocket, thereby adjusting the timing of valve operation on the fly. It is a dual-equal cam phasing system that adjusts camshaft timing at the same rate for both intake and exhaust valves. The system allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The vane phaser is actuated by hydraulic pressure and flow from engine oil, and managed by a solenoid that controls oil flow to the phaser.

Cylinder Head Design


The Gen-V small-block’s all-new cylinder head design builds on the excellent, racing-proven airflow attributes of previous small-block heads and matches it with an all-new direct-injection combustion system. It supports tremendous airflow at higher rpm for a broad horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Compared to the Gen-IV cylinder head design, the Gen-V head features a smaller, 59.18cc combustion chamber on the 4.3L, which is designed to complement the volume of the piston’s dish. The smaller chamber size and dished pistons work together to produce an 11.0:1 compression ratio. The spark plug angle and depth have been modified to protrude farther into the chamber, placing the electrode closer to the center of the combustion to support the direct injection system.

In addition to the new combustion chamber design, the Gen-V head features large, straight and rectangular intake ports that feature a slight twist to enhance mixture motion. This is complemented by a reversal of the intake and exhaust valve positions as compared to the Gen-IV design. The exhaust port shapes are optimized for the new valve locations, with new port opening locations at the manifold face.

Large, lightweight intake and exhaust valves are used in the aluminum alloy heads, including 1.93-inch (49mm) intake and 1.56-inch (39.5mm) exhaust valves for the 4.3L

The lightweight valves enable the engine to rev quickly and capably to greater than 6,000 rpm. The valves are held at new, 12.6-degree intake/12.1-degree exhaust angles vs. the Gen-IV’s 15-degree angle. Additionally, the valves are splayed to reduce shrouding and enable greater airflow.

Valvetrain components include durable valve springs and roller-pivot rocker arms with a 1.8 ratio – the amount of movement on the valve side of the rocker arm in comparison with the pushrod side. And speaking of pushrods, the Gen-V small-block features stiffer, larger-diameter 8.7mm (outside diameter) that provide greater stiffness than the previous 7.9mm design. This enables improved high-speed valvetrain dynamic performance.

Direct Injection


Direct injection is featured on all Gen-V engines. This technology moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions.

The pistons play an integral role in the direct injection system, as they feature dished heads designed to direct the fuel spray for a more complete combustion. Design of this advanced combustion system was optimized after thousands of hours of computational analysis, representing one of the most comprehensively engineered combustion systems ever developed by General Motors.

High-Pressure Fuel Pump


The direct injection system features very high fuel pressure, up to 15Mpa (150bar), requiring a high-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump in addition to a conventional, fuel-tank-mounted pump. On all Gen V engines, the pump is mounted in the “valley” between cylinder heads – beneath the intake manifold. It is driven by the camshaft at the rear of the engine.

A “soft stop” control strategy for the pump’s internal solenoid significantly reduces the characteristic “ticking” sound of direct injection systems. Mounting the pump in valley, where it is covered by an acoustically treated intake manifold, also helps reduce noise, while also maintaining the tight, compact packaging for which all small-blocks have been known.

Expanded Active Fuel Management Operation


GM’s fuel-saving Active Fuel Management (AFM) technology is standard on all Gen-V engines and expands the range of operation by more than 10 percent over the Gen-IV family. AFM temporarily deactivates two cylinders on the 4.3L V-6 under light load conditions – effectively operating as a V-4 – and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. When cylinders are deactivated, the engine’s pumping work is reduced, which translates into real-world fuel economy improvements. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds and is virtually imperceptible.

A new dual-mode oil pump enables Gen-V engines to engage AFM earlier than Gen-IV applications, helping enhance fuel economy. Greater engine power and torque, improved vehicle aerodynamics, lower tire rolling resistance and enhanced integration of the powertrain in the vehicles also contribute to the expanded operation.

Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds feature saw cuts along their cylinder head mounting flange, which split the flange into three separate sections on the 4.3L, allowing each section to move under extreme hot-cold temperature fluctuations without interacting with, or creating stress on, another section. The cuts virtually eliminate friction on and movement of the exhaust manifold gaskets, helping ensure proper sealing for the life of the engine and reducing the chance of gasket failure.

High-Flow Intake Manifold and Electronic Throttle


The Gen-V’s intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head, while also accommodating the high-pressure fuel pump for the direct injection system, which is mounted in the valley area between the cylinder heads. It is a composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional “skull cap” acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise, as well as fuel pump noise.

An electronically controlled throttle is mounted to the intake manifold. It is a single-bore design with a 72mm on the 4.3L and features a “contactless” design that is more durable and enables greater control.

Cooling System


The Gen-V’s cooling system is redesigned, compared to the Gen-IV engine and features a new offset water pump and thermostat.

58X Ignition System


The Gen-V has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft’s position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

Additional Features


Electronic Power Steering: All Gen V engines have Electronic Power Steering and do not incorporate a conventional, hydraulic power steering system in its accessory-drive system. This enhances both performance and fuel efficiency.

Vacuum Pump: The 4.3L, 5.3L and 6.2L truck engines feature a mechanical vacuum pump to enhance braking performance. It is an engine-driven pump.

Air Induction Humidity Sensor: This new feature ensures optimal combustion efficiency, regardless of the surrounding air’s humidity.

E-85 Capability: The 4.3L and 5.3L truck engines are E-85-capable, allowing them to run on E85 ethanol, gasoline or any combination of the two fuels.

Coil-on-Plug Ignition: The Gen-V’s individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils that are compact and mounted on the rocker covers, although they are positioned differently than on Gen-IV engine. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Iridium-Tip Spark Plugs: The spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor, offering higher internal resistance while maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency.

E92 Engine Controller


Operation and performance of the Gen-V is overseen by an all-new engine controller.




Overview

The fifth generation of the iconic GM small block engine family features the same cam-in-block architecture and 4.400-inch bore centers (the distance between the centers of each cylinder) that were born with the original small block in 1955.

Dubbed EcoTec3 in the new trucks – including a 4.3L V-6, 5.3L V-8 and 6.2L V-8 – the Gen-V engine family delivers greater efficiency, performance and durability, thanks to a combination of advanced technologies including direct injection, Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing) that support an advanced combustion system.

Structurally, the Gen-V small-block is similar to the Gen III/IV engines, including a deep-skirt cylinder block. Refinements and new or revised components are used throughout, including a revised cooling system and all-new cylinder heads. The engine is also designed to accommodate an engine-driven high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection system.

Type: 6.2L Gen V V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162cc (376 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 11.5:1
Valve configuration: overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Tonawanda and St. Catherines
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103.25 x 92mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Premium recommended
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 rpm
Emissions controls: catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
Cadillac Escalade, Escalade ESV
GMC Yukon, Yukon XL
420hp (313kW) @ 5600 RPM SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
Cadillac Escalade, Escalade ESV
GMC Yukon, Yukon XL
460 lb-ft. (624 Nm) @ 4100 RPM SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Cast Aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast Nodular Iron
Main bearing caps: Cast Nodular
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Billet Steel
Connecting rods: Forged Powder Metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Dexos 0W20
Dual-pressure control and variable displacement oil pump
58x crank timing
Chevrolet Silverado Transmission
M5U-8L90
GMC Sierra
M5U-8L90
GMC Yukon Denali, XL Denali
M5U-8L90
MYC-6L80
Cadillac Escalade, Escalade ESV
M5U-8L90
MYC-6L80

Aluminum Engine Block and Integral Oil Pan


Although based on the architecture of the LFX 3.6L, the cylinder block casting is unique to the LF3 turbocharged engine, with cast-in provisions for turbocharger coolant and oil connections, as well as positive crankcase ventilation passages. It uses nodular iron main bearing caps for greater strength to manage the higher cylinder pressures that come with turbocharging.

The block is cast from A319 aluminum alloy. This sand-cast block features strong cast-in iron bore liners, six-bolt main caps and inter-bay breather vents. A cast aluminum oil pan is stiffened to improve powertrain rigidity and reduce vehicle vibration.

Rotating Assembly with Oil-Spray Cooled Pistons


The crankshaft is made of forged steel, while the connecting rods are made of powdered metal with a higher ratio of copper, which makes them stronger and lighter. The machined aluminum pistons feature a unique dome profile specific to the Twin-Turbo application and also incorporate a top steel ring carrier for greater strength. They produce a 10.2:1 compression ratio with the engine’s unique cylinder heads. A friction-reducing polymer coating is used on the piston skirts, as well as fully floating wrist pins, which also reduce friction.

Three jet assemblies in the engine drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The jets reduce piston temperature, allowing the engine to produce more power without reducing long-term durability.

Cylinder Heads


The cylinder heads are also unique to the 3.6L Twin-Turbo. They feature a high-tumble intake port design that enhances the motion of the air charge for a more-efficient burn when it is mixed with the direct-injected fuel and ignited in the combustion chamber. The topology of the pistons, which feature centrally located dishes to direct the fuel spray from the injectors, is an integral design element of the chamber design, as the piston heads become part of the combustion chamber with direct injection.

Large, 38.3-mm intake valves and 30.6-mm sodium-filled exhaust valves enable tremendous airflow. In some conditions, the continuously variable valve timing system enables overlap conditions – when the intake and exhaust valves in a combustion chamber are briefly open at the same time – to promote airflow scavenging that helps spool the turbochargers quicker for faster boost production.

Hardened AR20 valve seat material on the exhaust side is used for its temperature robustness, while the heads are sealed to the block with multilayer-steel gaskets designed for the pressure of the turbocharging system.

Integrated Exhaust Manifolds


As with the naturally aspirated 3.6L, the heads feature integral exhaust manifolds, although upper and lower water jackets were added to the heads to provide uniform temperature distribution and optimal heat rejection. On top of the heads, new aluminum cam covers enhance quietness and are designed with greater positive crankcase ventilation volume to support the turbo system.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. Direct injection also delivers reduced cold-start emissions.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber, which reduces the charge temperature to lessen the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber, and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control.

Dual Overhead Cams with Four Valves per Cylinder


Four valves per cylinder and a silent chain valvetrain contribute to smoothness and high output. Four-cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as operating conditions such as rpm and engine load vary, resulting in smooth, even torque delivery, high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) and excellent fuel consumption.

Cam phasing also pays big dividends in reducing exhaust emissions. By closing the exhaust valves late at appropriate times, the cam phasers create an internal exhaust-gas recirculation system.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing (VVT), or cam phasing, helps the LFX deliver optimal performance and efficiency, and reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions. Because it manages valve overlap at optimum levels, it eliminates the need for an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system.

Twin Turbochargers and Integrated Charge Air Cooling


The 3.6L Twin-Turbo uses two turbochargers to produce more than 12 pounds of boost. Using a pair of smaller turbochargers rather than a single, larger turbo helps ensure immediate performance, because smaller turbochargers spool up – achieve boost-producing turbine speed – quicker to generate horsepower-building air pressure that is fed into the engine.

A single, centrally located throttle body atop the engine controls the air charge from both turbochargers after the temperature is reduced in the intercooler. This efficient design fosters more immediate torque response, for a greater feeling of power on demand, and reduces complexity by eliminating the need for a pair of throttle bodies.

The Cadillac Twin-Turbo’s integrated charge air cooling system also contributes to its immediate response, because the compressors blow through very short pipes up to the intercooler. With no circuitous heat-exchanger tubing, there is essentially no lag with the response of the turbochargers. In fact, airflow routing volume is reduced by 60 percent when compared with a conventional design that features a remotely mounted heat exchanger.

The charge-cooling heat exchangers lower the air charge temperature by more than 130 degrees F (74 C), packing the combustion chambers with cooler, denser air for greater power. The twin-brick configuration of the heat exchangers is similar in design and function to the 6.2L supercharged “LSA” engine used on the CTS-V Series and Chevrolet Camaro ZL1.

The air cooler system achieves more than 80 percent cooling efficiency with only about 1 psi (7 kPa) flow restriction at peak power, for fast torque production.

Vacuum-Activated Wastegates


Unique vacuum-actuated wastegates – one per turbocharger – and electronic vacuum-actuated recirculation valves are used with the 3.6L Twin-Turbo for better management of the engine’s boost pressure and subsequent torque response for smoother, more consistent performance across the rpm band.

A wastegate is used to regulate the boost pressure of the engine. It provides a method to bypass the exhaust flow from the turbo’s turbine wheel, which can be reintroduced into the exhaust stream – via a bypass tube – to maintain optimal turbine speed across the rpm band. Conventional wastegates are pressure-activated, allowing control of the actuator.

The 3.6LTwin-Turbo’s vacuum-activated wastegate valves provide more consistent boost control, particularly at lower rpm, to enhance low-rpm torque, for a greater feeling of power at low speeds. They are independently controlled on each engine bank to balance the compressors’ output to achieve more precise boost pressure response.

The wastegates also work in concert with the recirculation valves to eliminate co-surge from the turbos – a condition that can result in dynamic flow reversal, such as the moment immediately after the throttle closes. This overall system integration contributes to the engine’s smoother, more consistent feeling of performance.

In addition to the vacuum-actuated wastegates and recirculation valves, the engine employs dual mass air flow sensors and an integral inlet air temperature/humidity sensor, a dual-compressor inlet pressure sensor and dual manifold pressure sensors.




Overview

The 3.6L Twin-Turbo V-6 – used in the Cadillac CTS-Vsport – is the most power-dense six-cylinder engine in the midsize luxury segment and the most powerful V-6 ever from General Motors. The architecture of the 3.6L Twin-Turbo is based on the naturally aspirated 3.6L V-6 known by the LFX engine code, but with almost entirely all-new components.

A pair of smaller turbochargers and an efficient charge air cooler help provide more immediate power delivery. Additionally, approximately 90 percent of the 3.6L Twin-Turbo’s peak torque is available from 2,500 rpm to 6,000 rpm, giving the engine a broad torque curve that drivers feel as strong, willing power in almost all driving conditions.

Type: 3.6L V6 Turbo
Displacement: 3564 cc ( 217 ci )
Engine Orientation: L= Longitudinal T=Transverse L & T
Compression ratio: 10.2:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site/s: Ramos Arizpe
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1-2-3-4-5-6
Bore x stroke: 94.0 x 85.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 103
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 416.37
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Premium required
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
BIN 4
Dual close coupled and U/F catalysts
Positive crankcase ventilation
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight 220 / 485
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac CTS 420hp (313kW) @ 5750 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac XTS 410hp (306kW) @ 6000 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Cadillac CTS 430 lb.ft. (583 Nm) @ 3500 - 4500 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac XTS 369 lb.ft. (500 Nm) @ 1900 - 5600 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Aluminum (356)
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( Lower ), Aluminum ( Upper )
Main bearing caps: Nodular iron
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Austempered ductile iron
Connecting rods: Powdered metal
Additional features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing
Twin turbochargers
Dual vacuum actuated wastegates
Cam driven mechanical vacuum pump
Dual mass air flow sensors
Humidity sensor
Integrated charge air cooler
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Secondary throat cut inlet ports
Direct injection fuel system
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Electronic Throttle Control w/ integrated Cruise Control
Structural front cover with damper plates removed
Iridium center electrode / platinum side wire tip spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life EPDM accessory drive belt
7.7mm IT chain system for all HFV6 applications
Coil-on-plug ignition
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
GM Oil Life System
5W30 Dexos oil
Cadillac CTS Sedan Transmission
MGG-TL-80SN
Cadillac XTS
MHM-6T80 AWD-CU

Cylinder block


The all-new Gen-V cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM’s original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The bore and stroke dimensions are: 4.06-inch (103.25 mm) bore x 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke.

Compared to the Gen-IV small block, the Gen-V’s aluminum cylinder block casting is all-new, but based on the same basic architecture. It was refined and modified to accommodate the mounting of the engine-driven fuel pump and vacuum pump. It also incorporates new engine mount attachments, new knock sensor locations, improved sealing and oil-spray piston cooling.

Oiling System


The oiling system is revised and features a new, dual-pressure-control and variable-displacement vane pump with increased flow capacity. As with the Gen-III/Gen-IV engines, the oil pump is driven by the crankshaft. Variable displacement enables the pump to efficiently deliver oil pump flow as demanded. Dual pressure-control enables operation at a very efficient oil pressure at lower rpm coordinated with the Active Fuel Management and operation at a higher pressure at higher engine speeds providing a more robust lube system with aggressive engine operation.

All Gen-V engines are designed to be used with GM’s Dexos semi-synthetic motor oil. “Thinner” oil is used, too, which helps reduce friction to enhance efficiency. The LT1 6.2L uses 5W30.

The Corvette’s LT1 engine features a structural aluminum six-quart oil pan. A dry-sump oiling system with a 10.5-quart capacity is included with the optional Z51 Performance Package.

Oil-Spray Piston Cooling


All Gen-V engines feature oil-spray piston cooling, in which eight oil-spraying jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability. The extra layer of oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Rotating assembly and windage tray


Within the Gen-V block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and 6.098-inch-long, powder-metal connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The connecting rods have a new profile that enhances strength.

The pistons are lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker. They also have a unique head topography that is essential to the direct injection system. The “bowl” and shape of the top of the piston head is designed to promote thorough mixing of the air and fuel – a dished center section helps direct the fuel spray from the injector – to ensure complete combustion, which improves performance and efficiency, particularly on cold starts.

The crankshaft in the Gen-V small block is located with new nodular main bearing caps – a significant upgrade over more conventional grey iron main caps. Nodular caps are stronger and can better absorb vibrations and other harmonics to help produce smoother, quieter performance.

A redesigned windage tray is also used with the Gen-V engine, which features a new oil scraper design. This enhances performance and efficiency by improving oil flow control and bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The cylinder block an main bearing caps maintain the optimal cranksase “windows” that were perfected on the Gen-IV engine.

PCV-Integrated Rocker Covers


One of the most distinctive features of the Gen V family is its domed rocker covers, which house a patent-pending, integrated positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system that enhances oil economy and oil life, while reducing oil consumption and contributing to low emissions. The rocker covers also hold the direct-mount ignition coils for the coil-near-plug ignition system. Between the individual coil packs, the domed sections of the covers contain baffles that separate oil and air from the crankcase gases – about three times the oil/air separation capability of previous engines.

Camshaft Design


Also rotating inside the engine block is a hydraulic roller-lifter camshaft. Compared to the Gen-IV small-block, the camshaft remains in the same position relative to the crankshaft and is used with a new rear cam bearing. The camshaft also features an all-new “trilobe” to drive the engine-mounted, high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection combustion system.

The LT1 camshaft’s specifications lift include: 0.551/0.524-intake/exhaust lift, 200/207-crank angle degrees intake/exhaust duration at 0.050 tappet lift and 116.5-degree cam angle lobe separation.

Dual-Equal Cam Phasing


All Gen V engines feature dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing), which works with Active Fuel Management to enhance fuel economy, while also maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions.

At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, driveability and fuel economy. At high rpm it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm it can advance timing to increase torque. Under a light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

A vane-type phaser is installed on the front of the camshaft to change its angular orientation relative to the sprocket, thereby adjusting the timing of valve operation on the fly. It is a dual-equal cam phasing system that adjusts camshaft timing at the same rate for both intake and exhaust valves. The system allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The vane phaser is actuated by hydraulic pressure and flow from engine oil, and managed by a solenoid that controls oil flow to the phaser.

Cylinder Head Design


The Gen-V small-block’s all-new cylinder head design builds on the excellent, racing-proven airflow attributes of previous small-block heads and matches it with an all-new direct-injection combustion system. It supports tremendous airflow at higher rpm for a broad horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Compared to the Gen-IV cylinder head design, the LT1 head features a smaller, 59.02cc combustion chamber. It is designed to complement the volume of the piston’s dish. The smaller chamber size and dished pistons work together to produce an 11.5:1 compression ratio. The spark plug angle and depth have been modified to protrude farther into the chamber, placing the electrode closer to the center of the combustion to support the direct injection system.

In addition to the new combustion chamber design, the Gen-V head features large, straight and rectangular intake ports that feature a slight twist to enhance mixture motion. This is complemented by a reversal of the intake and exhaust valve positions as compared to the Gen-IV design. The exhaust port shapes are optimized for the new valve locations, with new port opening locations at the manifold face.

Large, lightweight intake and exhaust valves are used in the aluminum alloy heads, with 2.13-inch (54mm) hollow intake and 1.59-inch (40.4mm) hollow sodium exhaust valves. The lightweight valves enable the engine to rev quickly and capably to greater than 6,000 rpm.

The valves are held at new 12.5 degrees intake/12 degrees exhaust angles vs. the Gen-IV’s 15-degree angle. Additionally, the valves are splayed at 2.61 degrees intake/2.38 degrees exhaust to reduce shrouding and enable greater airflow.

Valvetrain components include durable valve springs and roller-pivot rocker arms with a 1.8 ratio – the amount of movement on the valve side of the rocker arm in comparison with the pushrod side. And speaking of pushrods, the Gen-V small-block features stiffer, larger-diameter 8.7mm (outside diameter) that provide greater stiffness than the previous 7.9mm design. This enables improved high-speed valvetrain dynamic performance.

The heads are made with 319-T7 aluminum alloy, using a semi-permanent mold process that produces a more accurate casting for optimal mass reduction and minimal machining.

Direct Injection


Direct injection is featured on all Gen-V engines. This technology moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions.

The pistons play an integral role in the direct injection system, as they feature dished heads designed to direct the fuel spray for a more complete combustion. Design of this advanced combustion system was optimized after thousands of hours of computational analysis, representing one of the most comprehensively engineered combustion systems ever developed by General Motors.

High-Pressure Fuel Pump


The direct injection system features very high fuel pressure, up to 15Mpa (150bar), requiring a high-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump in addition to a conventional, fuel-tank-mounted pump. On all Gen V engines, the pump is mounted in the “valley” between cylinder heads – beneath the intake manifold. It is driven by the camshaft at the rear of the engine.

A “soft stop” control strategy for the pump’s internal solenoid significantly reduces the characteristic “ticking” sound of direct injection systems. Mounting the pump in valley, where it is covered by an acoustically treated intake manifold, also helps reduce noise, while also maintaining the tight, compact packaging for which all small-blocks have been known.

Active Fuel Management


Active Fuel Management temporarily deactivates four of the cylinders and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. When cylinders are deactivated, the engine’s pumping work is reduced, which translates into real-world fuel economy improvements. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds and is virtually imperceptible.

The key to AFM’s efficiency and seamless operation is a set of two-stage hydraulic valve lifters, which allows the lifters of deactivated cylinders to operate without actuating the valves. In engineering terms, this allows the working cylinders to achieve better thermal, volumetric and mechanical efficiency and lowering cyclical combustion variation from cylinder to cylinder. As a result, AFM delivers better fuel economy and lower operating costs. The only mechanical components required are special valve lifters for cylinders that are deactivated, and their control system. Active Fuel Management relies on three primary components: Collapsible or “de-ac” (deactivation) valve lifters, a Lifter Oil Manifold Assembly (LOMA) and the engine controller, which determines when to deactivate cylinders.

Exhaust Manifolds


The LT1 engine uses a similar yet cast version of the “four-into-one” short-header exhaust manifold design used on the Gen-IV LS7 engine. The cast header passages enable consistent exhaust flow into the “wide mouth” collector at the converter.

High-Flow Intake Manifold and Electronic Throttle


The Gen-V’s intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head, while also accommodating the high-pressure fuel pump for the direct injection system, which is mounted in the valley area between the cylinder heads. It is a composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional “skull cap” acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise, as well as fuel pump noise.

The LT1 intake manifold features a “runners in a box” design, wherein individual runners inside the manifold feed a plenum box that allows for excellent, high-volume airflow packaged beneath the car’s low hood line.

An electronically controlled throttle is mounted to the intake manifold. It is a single-bore design with an 87mm bore diameter features a “contactless” design that is more durable and enables greater control.

Cooling System


The Gen-V’s cooling system is redesigned, compared to the Gen-IV engine and features a new offset water pump and thermostat.

58X Ignition System


The Gen-V has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft’s position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

In conjunction with 58X crankshaft timing, the Gen-V applies the latest digital cam-timing technology. The cam sensor is located in the front engine cover, and it reads a 4X sensor target on the on the cam phaser's rotor which is attached to front end of the cam. The target ring has four equally spaced segments that communicate the camshaft’s position more quickly and accurately than previous systems with a single segment.

The dual 58X/4X measurement ensures extremely accurate timing for the life of the engine. Moreover, it provides an effective backup system in the event one sensor fails.

Additional Features


Electronic Power Steering: All Gen V engines have Electronic Power Steering and do not incorporate a conventional, hydraulic power steering system in its accessory-drive system. This enhances both performance and fuel efficiency.

Air Induction Humidity Sensor: This new feature ensures optimal combustion efficiency, regardless of the surrounding air’s humidity.

Coil-on-Plug Ignition: The Gen-V’s individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils that are compact and mounted on the rocker covers, although they are positioned differently than on Gen-IV engine. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Iridium-Tip Spark Plugs: The spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor, offering higher internal resistance while maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency.

E92 Engine Controller


Operation and performance of the Gen-V is overseen by an all-new engine controller.







Overview

The new 6.2L LT1 engine that debuts in the 2014 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray represents the most significant redesign in the small block’s nearly 60-year history – building on its legacy to make one of the world’s best engines even better. It is part of a new Gen V small block family, with a cam-in-block architecture and 4.400-inch bore centers (the distance between the centers of each cylinder) that are design features shared with the very first small block upon its launch in 1955.

Several advanced technologies, including direct injection, Active Fuel Management and continuously variable valve timing support an advanced combustion system that helps the LT1 engine – the third small block to carry the name in Corvette’s history – produce 460 horsepower and 465 lb.-ft. of torque (with an optional exhaust system) with greater efficiency.

Type: 6.2L Gen V V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162cc (376 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 11.5:1
Valve configuration: overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Tonawanda, NY, St. Catherines, Ontario (Camaro Only)
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103.25 x 92mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Premium Recommended
Maximum Engine Speed: 6600 rpm
Emissions controls: catalytic converter
three-way catalyst
positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Corvette Base Exhaust
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 Base Exhaust
455 hp (339 kW) @ 6000 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Corvette Performance Exhaust
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 Performance Exhaust
460 hp (343 kW) @ 6000 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Camaro SS (Cpe.,Conv.) 455 hp (339 kW) @ 6000 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Corvette Base Exhaust
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 Base Exhaust
460 lb-ft. (624 Nm) 4600 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Corvette Performance Exhaust
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 Performance Exhaust
465 lb-ft. (630 Nm) @ 4600 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Camaro SS (Cpe.,Conv.) 455 lb.-ft (617Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast Nodular Iron (Corvette)
Fabricated Stainless Steel (Camaro)
Main bearing caps: Cast Nodular
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Billet Steel
Connecting rods: Forged Powder Metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Dexos 5W30
Dual-pressure control and variable displacement oil pump
58x crank timing
Chevrolet Corvette (Coupe, Convertible) Transmission
MYC-6L80
MEL-TR6070
Chevrolet Corvette Z51 (Coupe, Convertible) Transmission
MYC-6L80
MEP-TR6070

Cylinder block


The all-new Gen-V cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM’s original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The bore and stroke dimensions are 3.92-inch (99.6 mm) bore x 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke (262 cubic inches) for the 4.3L.

Compared to the Gen-IV engine, the Gen-V’s aluminum cylinder block casting is all-new, but based on the same basic architecture. It was refined and modified to accommodate the mounting of the engine-driven fuel pump and vacuum pump. It also incorporates new engine mount attachments, new knock sensor locations, improved sealing and oil-spray piston cooling.

Oiling System


The oiling system is revised and features a new, dual-pressure-control and variable-displacement vane pump with increased flow capacity. As with the Gen-III/Gen-IV engines, the oil pump is driven by the crankshaft. Variable displacement enables the pump to efficiently deliver oil pump flow as demanded. Dual pressure-control enables operation at a very efficient oil pressure at lower rpm coordinated with the Active Fuel Management and operation at a higher pressure at higher engine speeds providing a more robust lube system with aggressive engine operation.

All Gen-V engines are designed to be used with GM’s Dexos semi-synthetic motor oil. “Thinner” oil is used, too, which helps reduce friction to enhance efficiency. The 4.3L V-6 uses 5W30 oil, held in a six-quart aluminum oil pan.

Oil-Spray Piston Cooling


All Gen-V engines feature oil-spray piston cooling, in which eight oil-spraying jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability. The extra layer of oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Rotating assembly and windage tray


Within the 4.3L's block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and 6.125-inch-long, powder-metal connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The connecting rods have a new profile that enhances strength.

The pistons are lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker. They also have a unique head topography that is essential to the direct injection system. The “bowl” and shape of the top of the piston head is designed to promote thorough mixing of the air and fuel – a dished center section helps direct the fuel spray from the injector – to ensure complete combustion, which improves performance and efficiency, particularly on cold starts.

The crankshaft in the Gen-V small block is located with new nodular main bearing caps – a significant upgrade over more conventional grey iron main caps. Nodular caps are stronger and can better absorb vibrations and other harmonics to help produce smoother, quieter performance.

A redesigned windage tray is also used with the Gen-V engine, which features a new oil scraper design. This enhances performance and efficiency by improving oil flow control and bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The cylinder block an main bearing caps maintain the optimal cranksase “windows” that were perfected on the Gen-IV engine.

PCV-Integrated Rocker Covers


One of the most distinctive features of the Gen V family is its domed rocker covers, which house a patent-pending, integrated positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system that enhances oil economy and oil life, while reducing oil consumption and contributing to low emissions. The rocker covers also hold the direct-mount ignition coils for the coil-near-plug ignition system. Between the individual coil packs, the domed sections of the covers contain baffles that separate oil and air from the crankcase gases – about three times the oil/air separation capability of previous engines.

Camshaft Design


Also rotating inside the engine block is a hydraulic roller-lifter camshaft. Compared to the Gen-IV small-block, the camshaft remains in the same position relative to the crankshaft and is used with a new rear cam bearing. The camshaft also features an all-new “trilobe” to drive the engine-mounted, high-pressure fuel pump for the direct-injection combustion system.

The camshaft specifications for the 4.3L include: 12.7/12.5mm (0.500/0.492-inch) intake/exhaust lift, 193/199-crank angle degrees intake/exhaust duration at 0.050-inch tappet lift and 113-degree cam angle lobe separation.

Dual-Equal Cam Phasing


All Gen V engines feature dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing), which works with Active Fuel Management to enhance fuel economy, while also maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions.

A vane-type phaser is installed on the front of the camshaft to change its angular orientation relative to the sprocket, thereby adjusting the timing of valve operation on the fly. It is a dual-equal cam phasing system that adjusts camshaft timing at the same rate for both intake and exhaust valves. The system allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The vane phaser is actuated by hydraulic pressure and flow from engine oil, and managed by a solenoid that controls oil flow to the phaser.

Cylinder Head Design


The Gen-V small-block’s all-new cylinder head design builds on the excellent, racing-proven airflow attributes of previous small-block heads and matches it with an all-new direct-injection combustion system. It supports tremendous airflow at higher rpm for a broad horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Compared to the Gen-IV cylinder head design, the Gen-V head features a smaller, 59.18cc combustion chamber on the 4.3L, which is designed to complement the volume of the piston’s dish. The smaller chamber size and dished pistons work together to produce an 11.0:1 compression ratio. The spark plug angle and depth have been modified to protrude farther into the chamber, placing the electrode closer to the center of the combustion to support the direct injection system.

In addition to the new combustion chamber design, the Gen-V head features large, straight and rectangular intake ports that feature a slight twist to enhance mixture motion. This is complemented by a reversal of the intake and exhaust valve positions as compared to the Gen-IV design. The exhaust port shapes are optimized for the new valve locations, with new port opening locations at the manifold face.

Large, lightweight intake and exhaust valves are used in the aluminum alloy heads, including 1.93-inch (49mm) intake and 1.56-inch (39.5mm) exhaust valves for the 4.3L

The lightweight valves enable the engine to rev quickly and capably to greater than 6,000 rpm. The valves are held at new, 12.6-degree intake/12.1-degree exhaust angles vs. the Gen-IV’s 15-degree angle. Additionally, the valves are splayed to reduce shrouding and enable greater airflow.

Valvetrain components include durable valve springs and roller-pivot rocker arms with a 1.8 ratio – the amount of movement on the valve side of the rocker arm in comparison with the pushrod side. And speaking of pushrods, the Gen-V small-block features stiffer, larger-diameter 8.7mm (outside diameter) that provide greater stiffness than the previous 7.9mm design. This enables improved high-speed valvetrain dynamic performance.

Direct Injection


Direct injection is featured on all Gen-V engines. This technology moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions.

The pistons play an integral role in the direct injection system, as they feature dished heads designed to direct the fuel spray for a more complete combustion. Design of this advanced combustion system was optimized after thousands of hours of computational analysis, representing one of the most comprehensively engineered combustion systems ever developed by General Motors.

High-Pressure Fuel Pump


The direct injection system features very high fuel pressure, up to 15Mpa (150bar), requiring a high-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump in addition to a conventional, fuel-tank-mounted pump. On all Gen V engines, the pump is mounted in the “valley” between cylinder heads – beneath the intake manifold. It is driven by the camshaft at the rear of the engine.

A “soft stop” control strategy for the pump’s internal solenoid significantly reduces the characteristic “ticking” sound of direct injection systems. Mounting the pump in valley, where it is covered by an acoustically treated intake manifold, also helps reduce noise, while also maintaining the tight, compact packaging for which all small-blocks have been known.

Expanded Active Fuel Management Operation


GM’s fuel-saving Active Fuel Management (AFM) technology is standard on all Gen-V engines and expands the range of operation by more than 10 percent over the Gen-IV family. AFM temporarily deactivates two cylinders on the 4.3L V-6 under light load conditions – effectively operating as a V-4 – and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. When cylinders are deactivated, the engine’s pumping work is reduced, which translates into real-world fuel economy improvements. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds and is virtually imperceptible.

A new dual-mode oil pump enables Gen-V engines to engage AFM earlier than Gen-IV applications, helping enhance fuel economy. Greater engine power and torque, improved vehicle aerodynamics, lower tire rolling resistance and enhanced integration of the powertrain in the vehicles also contribute to the expanded operation.

Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds feature saw cuts along their cylinder head mounting flange, which split the flange into three separate sections on the 4.3L, allowing each section to move under extreme hot-cold temperature fluctuations without interacting with, or creating stress on, another section. The cuts virtually eliminate friction on and movement of the exhaust manifold gaskets, helping ensure proper sealing for the life of the engine and reducing the chance of gasket failure.

High-Flow Intake Manifold and Electronic Throttle


The Gen-V’s intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head, while also accommodating the high-pressure fuel pump for the direct injection system, which is mounted in the valley area between the cylinder heads. It is a composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional “skull cap” acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise, as well as fuel pump noise.

An electronically controlled throttle is mounted to the intake manifold. It is a single-bore design with a 72mm on the 4.3L and features a “contactless” design that is more durable and enables greater control.

Cooling System


The Gen-V’s cooling system is redesigned, compared to the Gen-IV engine and features a new offset water pump and thermostat.

58X Ignition System


The Gen-V has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft’s position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

Additional Features


Electronic Power Steering: All Gen V engines have Electronic Power Steering and do not incorporate a conventional, hydraulic power steering system in its accessory-drive system. This enhances both performance and fuel efficiency.

Vacuum Pump: The 4.3L, 5.3L and 6.2L truck engines feature a mechanical vacuum pump to enhance braking performance. It is an engine-driven pump.

Air Induction Humidity Sensor: This new feature ensures optimal combustion efficiency, regardless of the surrounding air’s humidity.

E-85 Capability: The 4.3L and 5.3L truck engines are E-85-capable, allowing them to run on E85 ethanol, gasoline or any combination of the two fuels.

Coil-on-Plug Ignition: The Gen-V’s individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils that are compact and mounted on the rocker covers, although they are positioned differently than on Gen-IV engine. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.

Iridium-Tip Spark Plugs: The spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor, offering higher internal resistance while maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency.

E92 Engine Controller


Operation and performance of the Gen-V is overseen by an all-new engine controller.




Overview

The fifth generation of the iconic GM small block engine family features the same cam-in-block architecture and 4.400-inch bore centers (the distance between the centers of each cylinder) that were born with the original small block in 1955.

Dubbed EcoTec3 in the new trucks - including a 4.3L V-6, 5.3L V-8 and 6.2L V-8 - the Gen-V engine family delivers greater efficiency, performance and durability, thanks to a combination of advanced technologies including direct injection, Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing) that support an advanced combustion system.

The 4.3L V-6 is based on the V-8 versions of the Gen-V family, but with two fewer cylinders - a design lineage that dates back to the previous 4.3L V-6, which was itself a Gen-II small block with a pair of cylinders removed.

Type: 4.3L Gen V V-6 VVT ( LV3 )
Displacement: 4301 cc (262 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 11.0:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Tonawanda and Ramos, Mexico
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 99.6 x 92mm
Fuel system: SIDI
Fuel type: Regular unleaded and E85
Maximum Engine Speed: 5800 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative Emissions
Bin 4 emissions
Returnless fuel system
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
285 hp (213 kw) @ 5300 Rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
297 hp (221 kW) @ 5300 Rpm SAE Certified - E85
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
305 lb-ft (413 Nm) @ 3900 Rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Silverado
GMC Sierra
330 lb-ft (447 Nm) @ 3900 Rpm SAE Certified - E85
MATERIALS
Block: Cast Aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast Nodular Iron
Main bearing caps: Powder Metal
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Billet Steel
Connecting rods: Powder Metal
Additional features: Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
E85 Flex Fuel
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Dexos 5W30
Dual-pressure control and variable displacement oil pump
58x crank timing
Chevrolet Silverado (All cabs) Transmission
MYC-6L80
GMC Sierra (All cabs) Transmission
MYC-6L80

Cylinder Block


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The L77's cylinder heads feature rectangular intake ports that support exceptional airflow. They support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

High-Flow Intake Manifold with Acoustic Shell


The L77's intake manifold ports are designed to match the cylinder head. The composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional "skull cap" acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

Active Fuel Management


AFM temporarily deactivates four of the L77's cylinders under light load conditions and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. AFM is managed by the engine control module (ECM). When conditions are optimal, it automatically shuts down every second cylinder, according to firing order, during light-load operation. As a result, AFM delivers better fuel economy and lower operating costs.

58X Ignition System


The L77 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Overview

The L77 6.0L V-8 offers Active Fuel Management (AFM) cylinder deactivation technology and FlexFuel capability, allowing it to run on E85 ethanol. Active Fuel Management allows the engine to operate on only four cylinders during certain light-load driving conditions, saving the fuel normally used to drive all eight cylinders. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also optimizes emissions performance.

Type: 6.0L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 5967 cc (364 ci)
Compression ratio: 10.4:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder: 2
Assembly site: Silao
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 101.6 x 92 mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection ( SFI )
Fuel type: Premium fuel recommended, not required. E85 capable
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 RPM
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Valves per cylinder 2
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Engine Mass ( kg/lbs ) 183 / 403
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Caprice PPV 355 hp ( 265 kW ) @ 5300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Caprice PPV 384 lb-ft ( 521 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Active Fuel Management
Oil Life Monitor System
Oil Level Sensor
Electronic throttle control
Extended life accessory drive belt
Chevrolet Caprice PPV Transmission
MYC-6L80

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L96 quiet and smooth.

The L96 6.0L also features a heavy-duty timing chain developed expressly for quiet operation. The chain, which connects the camshaft and crankshaft, is validated for 200,000 miles of operation and fitted with a leaf-spring-type dampener.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 6.0L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. They're derived from the high-performance cylinder heads that were used on the "C5" Chevrolet Corvette Z06 and support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

Camshaft Phasing


The 6.0L features variable valve timing, maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, drivability and fuel economy. At high rpm's it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm's it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer emissions in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

Quiet Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast nodular iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds are fitted with new triple-layer heat shields fabricated from stainless steel and insulating material. The shields limit heat transfer from the engine to the engine bay, allowing the 6.0L to reach optimal operating temperature more quickly, yet reducing heat in the engine compartment once that temperature is achieved.

58X Ignition System


The L96 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT (L96)

Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT (L96)

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Overview

The Vortec 6.0L V-8 (L96) is a heavy-duty workhorse engine. Variable valve timing helps the 6.0L (L96) optimize performance, efficiency and emissions. The 6.0L's balance of performance and efficiency is great airflow throughout. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also optimizes emissions performance.

The 6.0L is powerful, but delivers exceptional refinement to go with great strength. Quiet features built into the engine are complemented by an improved engine cradle and mounting system. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

Description: 6.0L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Type: V-8
Displacement: 5967cc (364 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.7:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Silao, Mexico
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 101.6 x 92 mm
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: Applications:
Regular unleaded Chevrolet Silverado HD, GMC Sierra HD
Regular unleaded Chevrolet Express ( Cutaway ), GMC Savana ( Cutaway )
E85 Flex Fuel Chevrolet Express ( Passenger,Cargo ), GMC Savana ( Passenger,Cargo )
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass. Cut) 342 hp ( 255 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass. Cut) 342 hp ( 255 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10,000 lbs 360 hp ( 268 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Sierra HD < 10,000 lbs 360 hp ( 268 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10,000 lbs 360 hp ( 268 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Sierra HD > 10,000 lbs 360 hp ( 268 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10,000 lbs (Chassis Cab Models Only) 322 hp ( 240 kW ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Sierra HD > 10,000 lbs (Chassis Cab Models Only) 322 hp ( 240 kW ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft ( Nm )
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass. Cut) 373 lb-ft (506 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass. Cut) 373 lb-ft (506 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10,000 lbs 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10,000 lbs 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Sierra HD > 10,000 lbs 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10,000 lbs (Chassis Cab Models Only) 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Sierra HD > 10,000 lbs (Chassis Cab Models Only) 380 lb-ft (515 Nm) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Maximum Engine Speed: Silverado, Sierra, Suburban, Yukon XL = 6000 rpm Express, Savana = 5600 rpm
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: Electronic throttle control
E85 Flex Fuel
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Variable valve timing ( VVT )
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10K GVW
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10K GVW
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Sierra HD < 10K GVW
MYD-6L90
GMC Sierra HD > 10K GVW
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L96 quiet and smooth.

The L96 6.0L also features a heavy-duty timing chain developed expressly for quiet operation. The chain, which connects the camshaft and crankshaft, is validated for 200,000 miles of operation and fitted with a leaf-spring-type dampener.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 6.0L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. They're derived from the high-performance cylinder heads that were used on the "C5" Chevrolet Corvette Z06 and support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

Camshaft Phasing


The 6.0L features variable valve timing, maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, drivability and fuel economy. At high rpm's it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm's it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer emissions in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

Quiet Exhaust Manifolds


The exhaust manifolds were developed to improve durability and sealing and reduce operational noise. Cast nodular iron was the material of choice for its basic durability and excellent heat-management properties. The manifolds are fitted with new triple-layer heat shields fabricated from stainless steel and insulating material. The shields limit heat transfer from the engine to the engine bay, allowing the 6.0L to reach optimal operating temperature more quickly, yet reducing heat in the engine compartment once that temperature is achieved.

58X Ignition System


The L96 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.



Overview

The Vortec 6.0L V-8, LC8 is a dedicated CNG (compressed natural gas) and LPG (liquid petroleum gas, vans only) version of the L96 engine. The 6.0L's balance of performance and efficiency is great airflow throughout. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also optimizes emissions performance.

The 6.0L is powerful, but delivers exceptional refinement to go with great strength. Quiet features built into the engine are complemented by an improved engine cradle and mounting system. These help reduce vibrations transmitted through the chassis and into the passenger compartment.

Description: 6.0L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Type: V-8
Displacement: 5967cc (364 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.7:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder: 2
Assembly site: Silao, Mexico
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 101.6 x 92 mm
Bore Center (mm): 111.76
Fuel system: Sequential Fuel Injection
Fuel type: Applications:
Regular Unleaded Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10,000 lbs, Chevrolet Express (Cutaway)
GMC Sierra HD < 10,000 lbs, GMC Savana (Cutaway)
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10,000 lbs, Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Cutaway)
GMC Sierra HD < 10,000 lbs, GMC Savana (Cargo, Cutaway)
Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) Chevrolet Express ( Cargo, Cutaway )
GMC Savana ( Cargo, Cutaway )
Chevrolet Express ( Cargo, Cutaway )
GMC Savana ( Cargo, Cutaway )
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Silverado HD Gasoline
GMC Sierra HD Gasoline
Chevrolet Silverado HD Gasoline
GMC Sierra HD Gasoline
360 hp ( 268 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express Gasoline
GMC Savana Gasoline
Chevrolet Express Gasoline
GMC Savana Gasoline
342 hp ( 255 kW ) @ 5400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD CNG
GMC Sierra HD CNG
Chevrolet Silverado HD CNG
GMC Sierra HD CNG
301 hp ( 225 kW ) @ 5000 rpm SAE Net
Chevrolet Express CNG
GMC Savana CNG
Chevrolet Express CNG
GMC Savana CNG
282 hp ( 210 kW ) @ 4800 rpm SAE Net
Chevrolet Express LPG
GMC Savana LPG
Chevrolet Express LPG
GMC Savana LPG
332 hp ( 248 kW ) @ 4800 rpm SAE Net
Applications: Torque: lb-ft ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado HD Gasoline
GMC Sierra HD Gasoline
Chevrolet Silverado HD Gasoline
GMC Sierra HD Gasoline
380 lb-ft ( 515 Nm ) @ 4200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Express Gasoline
GMC Savana Gasoline
Chevrolet Express Gasoline
GMC Savana Gasoline
373 lb-ft ( 506 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Silverado HD CNG
GMC Sierra HD CNG
Chevrolet Silverado HD CNG
GMC Sierra HD CNG
333 lb-ft ( 452 Nm ) @ 4200 rpm SAE Net
Chevrolet Express CNG
GMC Savana CNG
Chevrolet Express CNG
GMC Savana CNG
320 lb-ft ( 434 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE Net
Chevrolet Express LPG
GMC Savana LPG
Chevrolet Express LPG
GMC Savana LPG
370 lb-ft ( 501 Nm ) @ 4400 rpm SAE Net
Maximum Engine Speed: Silverado, Sierra = 6000 rpm
Express, Savana = 5600 rpm
Silverado, Sierra = 6000 rpm
Express, Savana = 5600 rpm
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Powder metal
Additional features: Electronic throttle control
Unique exhaust valves, intake and exhaust valve seats for CNG/LPG durability
Extended life accessory drive belt
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Variable valve timing ( VVT )
Chevrolet Express LPG (Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express CNG (Cargo, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Silverado HD < 10K GVW Bi-Fuel (CNG) Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Silverado HD > 10K GVW Bi-Fuel (CNG) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana CNG (Cargo, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana LPG (Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Sierra HD > 10K GVW Bi-Fuel (CNG) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Sierra HD < 10K GVW Bi-Fuel (CNG) Transmission
MYD-6L90

Optimized Piston Skirt


The Ecotec 2.4L (LE9) features pistons with a slight barrel shape, which helps smooth the glide through the cylinders and reduce lateral movement. It results in quieter – especially on cold starts – and smoother operation. The Ecotec 2.4L's pistons use lightweight aluminum pistons, for less reciprocating mass inside the engine that enhances efficiency, decreases vibration and bolsters the feeling of performance as rpm increases.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. Continuously variable valve timing optimizes the engine's turbocharging system by adjusting valve timing at lower rpm for improved turbo response and greater torque delivery.

Cam phasing allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption. Cam phasing also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The Ecotec 2.4L camshafts feature 4X timing reluctors with digital sensors. This state-of-the-art control system allows the ECM to accurately measure and adjust valve timing, with consistent performance over the engine's anticipated useful life.

Electronic Throttle Control


GM has led the industry in applying electronic throttle control (ETC). With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel, composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable, biodegradable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Revised Oil Pump/Front Cover


The engine front covers incorporate a more efficient "goosehead"-port oil pump design, which reduces cavitation at higher engine speeds and results in a measurable reduction in noise, especially in cold-start and drive-away operation. The oil pump also includes a pressure-balanced oil relief valve, further improving the durability and reliability of the lubrication system, as well as a lower friction crank seal.

Oil Changes


Routine maintenance with the Ecotec 2.4L is limited to oil and filter changes; and with a paper filter replacement cartridge those are made as easy as possible. GM's industry-leading Oil Life System determines oil-change intervals according to real-world operation rather than a predetermined mileage interval.


ECOTEC 2.4L I-4 VVT (LE9)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

GM's versatile and technologically advanced Ecotec 2.4L (LE9) engine uses continuously variable valve timing to optimize performance, efficiency and emissions. It is also E85 flex-fuel-capable, allowing it to run on 100-precent gasoline, 100-percent E85 ethanol or any combination of the two.

Type: Ecotec 2.4L I-4
Displacement: 2384 cc (145 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal or Transverse
Compression ratio: 10.4:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Spring Hill, Tenn.
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 88.00 x 98.00mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded, E85 Flex Fuel ( Chevrolet HHR and Malibu )
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Malibu 170 hp ( 127 kW ) @ 6200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( gasoline, as tested )
175 hp ( 130 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( E85 Flex Fuel, as tested )
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Malibu 158 lb-ft ( 214 Nm ) @ 5200 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( gasoline, as tested )
170 lb-ft ( 230 Nm ) @ 4700 rpm SAE CERTIFIED ( E85 Flex Fuel, as tested )
Maximum Engine Speed: 6750 rpm ( forward gears )
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converter
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: High silicon molybdenum, cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Aluminum bedplate
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
E85 Flex Fuel
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Dual converter system
Chevrolet Malibu Transmission
MH8-6T40

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.4L's sand-cast cylinder provides excellent structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness.

The main bearing bulkheads, which support the crank bearing, as well as the cylinder bore walls, have been significantly strengthened to support increased engine loads.

Aluminum Pistons with Jet-Spray Cooling


The Ecotec 2.4L's pistons use lightweight aluminum pistons, for less reciprocating mass inside the engine that enhances efficiency, decreases vibration and bolsters the feeling of performance as rpm increases. Each piston has its own directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

Cylinder Head


The Ecotec 2.4L has a SPM 319 aluminum cylinder head that is cast with advanced semi-permanent mold technology. This provides excellent strength, reduced machining and optimal port flow. The cylinder head is designed specifically for direct injection into each combustion chamber and includes premium valve seat, valve guide and valve materials. The cylinder head also has integral cast oil passages that feed a set of internal oil control valves that activate cam phasers, enabling variable valve timing.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. Continuously variable valve timing optimizes the engine's turbocharging system by adjusting valve timing at lower rpm for improved turbo response and greater torque delivery

Cam phasing allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption. Cam phasing also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. Direct injection also reduces emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber. This reduces the charge temperature and lessens the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the direct injection system in the Ecotec 2.4L. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank.


ECOTEC 2.4L I-4 VVT DI (LEA)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

GM's versatile and technologically advanced Ecotec 2.4L engine is the standard engine in a wide range of vehicles. Direct injection technology helps it deliver horsepower and torque. It is also FlexFuel-capable.

With the Ecotec 2.4L's direct injection system, more power is made with less fuel, and the engine produces lower emissions. In fact, cold-start emissions are reduced by up to 25 percent. The engine delivers greater torque at lower rpm and builds it smoothly toward its peak at 4,900 rpm, for excellent, confident performance in all driving conditions.

Type: Ecotec 2.4L I-4 VVT DI
Displacement: 2384 cc (145 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 11.2:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Spring Hill, Tenn.
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 88.00 x 98.00 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 96.00 mm
Fuel system: Direct Injection
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded, E85 Capable
E85 Applications: Equinox, Terrain
Applications: GMNA Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Equinox 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
GMC Terrain 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Regal (Fleet Only) 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Verano CX, CXL 180 hp (134 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Equinox 172 lb-ft. ( 233 Nm ) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
GMC Terrain 172 lb-ft. ( 233 Nm ) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Regal (Fleet Only) 172 lb-ft. ( 233 Nm ) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Verano CX, CXL 171 lb-ft. (232 Nm) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7000 rpm ( forward gears )
Emissions controls: SAI system, PZEV capable
Evaporative system
Catalytic converter
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: High silicon molybdenum, cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Aluminum bedplate
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Buick Verano CX
MH8-6T40
Buick Verano CXL
MH8-6T40
Buick Regal (Fleet Only)
MH8-6T40
Chevrolet Equinox Transmission
MH7-6T45
MHC-6T45-AWD
GMC Terrain Transmission
MH7-6T45
MHC-6T45 AWD

Aluminum Engine Block and Integral Oil Pan


The 3.6L V-6 VVT's engine block is cast from A319 aluminum alloy. This aluminum-intensive construction means less weight and greater efficiency than conventional cast-iron engines as well as improved vehicle fuel economy. The sand-cast block features strong cast-in iron bore liners, six-bolt main caps, and inter-bay breather vents. A cast aluminum oil pan is stiffened to improve powertrain rigidity and reduce vehicle vibration.

Rotating Assembly with Oil-Spray Cooled Pistons


The crankshaft is made of forged steel, while the connecting rods are made of powdered metal with a higher ratio of copper, which makes them stronger and lighter. The pistons are made of lightweight cast aluminum and feature a friction-reducing polymer coating on the skirts, as well as fully floating wrist pins, which also reduce friction. Less weight in the pistons means less reciprocating mass in the engine, resulting in less inertia and greater operating efficiency.

Three jet assemblies in the engine drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The jets reduce piston temperature, allowing the engine to produce more power without reducing long-term durability.

Integrated Cylinder Heads/Exhaust Manifolds


The cylinder head design has an intake port design that enhances airflow to the combustion chambers. Larger valves that stay open longer allow more of the air to be pulled into the combustion chamber for a more powerful combustion. An optimized fuel system equals more power and fuel economy, while an efficient combustion means reduced emissions.

The exhaust manifold is incorporated with the cylinder head and saves weight, reduces complexity and promotes a quicker light off of the catalytic converter, reducing emissions.

Fuel system


Two unique fuels systems have been packaged into the cylinder head intake manifold providing independent operation in either CNG or gasoline while allowing seamless fuel mode transitions when either fuel is unavailable or the driver requests a specific fuel mode via a selectable switch. Fuel range and economy is calculated for each specific fuel and displayed via the Driver Information Center.

Dual Overhead Cams with Four Valves per Cylinder and Silent Cam Drive


Four valves per cylinder and a silent chain valvetrain contribute to smoothness and high output. Four-cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as operating conditions such as rpm and engine load vary, resulting in smooth, even torque delivery, high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) and excellent fuel consumption.

Cam phasing also pays big dividends in reducing exhaust emissions. By closing the exhaust valves late at appropriate times, the cam phasers create an internal exhaust-gas recirculation system. The 3.6L V-6 VVT meets all emissions mandates without complex, weight-increasing emissions control systems such as EGR and air injection reaction (AIR).

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing (VVT), or cam phasing, helps deliver optimal performance and efficiency, and reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions. Because it manages valve overlap at optimum levels, it eliminates the need for an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system.

Composite Intake Manifold and Fully Isolated Aluminum Camshaft Covers


The upper intake manifold is made from composite material that provides mass savings over an aluminum manifold, with a carefully designed structure that provides quiet engine operation. Cam covers are aluminum and were shaped to limit noise. The covers use isolating perimeter gaskets, and isolating radial lips around the tubes to accommodate the spark plugs. These effectively de-couple the covers from vibration generated during combustion.

Engine Control Module (ECM)


The LFR is controlled by a new bi-fuel capable E18 engine control module. It is a torque-based engine management system that calculates optimal throttle position, cam phasing positions, ignition angle, fuel injection mass and other operational parameters to optimize engine output, based on the driver's positioning of the gas pedal.




Overview

The new 3.6L Twin-Turbo V-6 is the most power-dense six-cylinder engine in the midsize luxury segment - and is the most powerful V-6 ever from General Motors.

The 3.6L LFR engine uses the same lightweight components that contribute to fuel efficiency and performance of the LFX engine. An integrated cylinder head/exhaust manifold design, for example, saves about 13 pounds compared to a non-integrated design, while a composite intake manifold saves about 5.5 pounds vs. an aluminum intake. Additionally, a lightweight structural front cover and high-strength connecting rods save additional weight.

Type: 3.6L V6
Displacement: 3564 cc ( 217 ci )
Engine Orientation: L= Longitudinal T=Transverse L & T
Compression ratio: 11.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site's: Melbourne, Australia
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1-2-3-4-5-6
Bore x Stroke: 94.0 x 85.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 103
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 416.37
Fuel system: Sequential Port Fuel Injection
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded, CNG
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Impala - CNG 232hp (173kW) @ 6000 SAE Net
Chevrolet Impala - Gas 258hp (192kW) @ 5900 SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Impala - CNG 218 lb-ft. (295Nm) @ 5200 SAE Net
Chevrolet Impala - Gas 244 lb-ft. (331Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6800rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight 158 / 348 ( estimate )
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Internal exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR )
Dual close coupled converters
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum ( 319 semi permanent mold )
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( 319 Lower ), Composite ( Upper )
Main bearing caps: Sintered steel ( CU infiltrated )
Crankshaft: Hardened Forged steel (1538 MV )
Camshaft: Cast iron
Connecting rods: Sinter forged steel
Additional features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Secondary throat cut inlet ports
Port Fuel injection - Petrol fuel Rail
Port Fuel injection - CNG fuel Rail
Electronic Throttle Control w/ integrated Cruise Control
Structural front cover with damper plates removed
Iridium center electrode / platinum side wire tip spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life EPDM accessory drive belt
7.7mm IT chain system for all HFV6 applications
Coil-on-plug ignition
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
GM Oil Life System
5W30 Dexos oil
Chevrolet Impala Bi-Fuel (CNG) Transmission
M7W-6T70
Chevrolet Impala Bi-Fuel (Gas) Transmission
M7W-6T70

Aluminum Engine Block and Integral Oil Pan


The 3.6L V-6 VVT's engine block is cast from A319 aluminum alloy. This aluminum-intensive construction means less weight and greater efficiency than conventional cast-iron engines – and less weight translates to improved vehicle fuel economy. The sand-mold-cast block features strong cast-in iron bore liners, six-bolt main caps, and inter-bay breather vents. A cast aluminum oil pan is stiffened to improve powertrain rigidity and reduce vehicle vibration.

Rotating Assembly with Oil-Spray Cooled Pistons


The crankshaft is manufactured from forged steel, while the connecting rods are made of powdered metal that features a higher ratio of copper, which makes them stronger and enables them to be lighter.

The V-6 VVT engine family was developed with pressure-actuated oil squirters in all applications. The jets reduce piston temperature, which in turn allows the engine to produce more power without reducing long-term durability.

Integrated Cylinder Heads/Exhaust Manifolds


The LFX's new cylinder head design has a revised intake port design that enhances airflow to the combustion chambers. Larger-diameter intake valves are used in the heads and work in conjunction with new, longer-duration intake camshafts to provide the engine's boost in horsepower. By using larger valves and holding them open longer, more of the air is pulled into the combustion chamber, for a more powerful combustion. The exhaust manifold is incorporated with the cylinder head, which saves weight, reduces complexity and helps promote a quicker light off of the catalytic converter, which further helps reduce emissions.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, which are cut by about 25 percent.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gas emissions in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Dual Overhead Cams with Four Valves per Cylinder and Silent Cam Drive


Four-valves-per-cylinder with inverted-tooth chain cam drive contributes to the smoothness and high output of the LFX. The engine incorporates a timing chain with an inverted tooth design. These smaller links engage at a lower impact speed, which decreases the noise generated. In conjunction with the smaller pitch chain, the number of teeth on the sprockets are increased, which increases the meshing frequency and further reduces noise and vibration.

Four valves per cylinder and a silent chain valvetrain contribute to both smoothness and high output. Four-cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as operating conditions such as rpm and engine load vary.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing (VVT), or cam phasing, helps the LFX deliver optimal performance and efficiency, and reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. The system changes valve timing on the fly, maximizing engine performance for a variety of operating conditions. At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, enabling exceptionally smooth idle quality. Under other operating demands, cam phasing adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, driveability and fuel economy. At high rpm it might retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm it can advance timing to increase torque. Under light-load driving it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

Composite Intake Manifold and Fully Isolated Composite Camshaft Covers


The upper intake manifold for the LFX is made from composite material and provides mass savings over an aluminum manifold, with a carefully designed structure that helps ensure quiet engine operation. The surfaces on the cam covers are shaped to limit the broadcasting of undesirable noise, and the covers use isolating perimeter gaskets, as well as isolating radial lips around the tubes that accommodate the spark plugs. These effectively de-couple the covers from vibration generated in the block and engine during combustion. Acoustic dampening has also been added for additional NVH improvements.

Refinement, Durability and Maintenance


Additional changes incorporated in the LFX deliver greater refinement, quietness and durability, starting with revisions to the front cover. It was redesigned with additional support ribs on the backside and an additional fastener to improve noise and vibration characteristics. The cylinder block is modified slightly to accommodate the front cover's additional fastener.

Also, the camshafts feature new saddle-type caps for improved durability. Finally, the throttle body is updated with a new, digital throttle position feature that eliminates a previous mechanical contact for more trouble-free operation.








Overview

GM’s 3.6L direct-injected V-6 (LFX) delivers great performance and efficiency through continuous refinements to an already well-balanced package. It employs direct injection, variable valve timing and dual-overhead camshafts to optimize power and efficiency in a wide range of cars and crossovers.

The 3.6L LFX engine also uses lightweight components that contribute to fuel efficiency and performance. An integrated cylinder head/exhaust manifold design, for example, saves about 13 pounds compared to a non-integrated design, while a composite intake manifold saves about 5.5 pounds vs. an aluminum intake. Additionally, a lightweight structural front cover and high-strength connecting rods save additional weight.

2016 3.6L V6 VVT DI (LFX )
Type: 3.6L V6
Displacement: 3564 cc ( 217 ci )
Engine Orientation: L= Longitudinal T=Transverse L & T
Compression ratio: 11.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site/s: St. Catharines, ON
Flint, MI
Melbourne, Australia
Ramos Arizpe, MX
Firing order: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6
Bore x stroke: 94.0 x 85.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 103
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 416.37
Fuel system: DI
Fuel Type: Regular Unleaded, E85 capable
E85 Applications: Impala Limited PPV
Impala Limited Fleet (except PZEV)
Caprice PPV
Lacrosse
Equinox
Terrain
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw ) @ rpm
Chevrolet Caprice Police Patrol Vehicle PPV 301 hp (225kW) @ 6700 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala Limited PPV 302 hp (225kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala 305 hp (227kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala Limited (Fleet Only) 300 hp (224kW) @ 6500 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Equinox 301 hp (225kW) @ 6500 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Colorado 305 hp (227kW) @ 6400 SAE Certified
Cadillac SRX 308 hp (230kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Cadillac XTS 305 hp (227kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
Buick LaCrosse 304 hp (226kW) @ 6800 SAE Certified
GMC Canyon 305 hp (227kW) @ 6400 SAE Certified
GMC Terrain 301 hp (225kW) @ 6500 SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm ) @ rpm
Chevrolet Caprice Police Patrol Vehicle PPV 265 lb-ft. (359Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala Limited PPV 262 lb-ft. (355Nm) @ 5300 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala 264 lb-ft. (358Nm) @ 5200 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala Limited (Fleet Only) 262 lb-ft. (355Nm) @ 5300 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Equinox 272 lb-ft. (369Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Chevrolet Colorado 269 lb-ft (365Nm) @ 4000 SAE Certified
Cadillac SRX 265 lb-ft. (359Nm) @ 2400 SAE Certified
Cadillac XTS 264 lb-ft. (358Nm) @ 5200 SAE Certified
Buick LaCrosse 264 lb-ft. (358Nm) @ 5300 SAE Certified
GMC Canyon 269 lb-ft (365Nm) @ 4000 SAE Certified
GMC Terrain 272 lb-ft. (369Nm) @ 4800 SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7200rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight depending on application 158-162 / 348-356 ( estimate )
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Internal exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR )
Dual close coupled converters
Supplemental Air Injection PZEV (Impala) only
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum ( 319 semi permanent mold )
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( 319 Lower ), Composite ( Upper )
Main bearing caps: Sintered steel ( CU infiltrated )
Crankshaft: Hardened Forged steel (1538 MV )
Camshaft: Cast iron
Connecting rods: Sinter forged steel
Additional features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Secondary throat cut inlet ports
Direct injection fuel system
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Electronic Throttle Control w/ integrated Cruise Control
Structural front cover with damper plates removed
Iridium center electrode / platinum side wire tip spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life EPDM accessory drive belt
7.7mm IT chain system for all HFV6 applications
Coil-on-plug ignition
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
GM Oil Life System
5W30 Dexos oil












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Buick LaCrosse Transmission
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70-CU
Cadillac ATS Sedan Transmission
MYA-6L45
Cadillac CTS (Coupe, Wagon) Transmission
MYA-6L45
Cadillac CTS Sedan Transmission
MGG-TL-80SN
Cadillac SRX
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70-CU
Cadillac XTS
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70 CU
Cadillac XTS Professional Vehicle
M7V-6T75 CU
Chevrolet Camaro (Cpe. Conv.) Transmission
MYB-6L50
MV5-M6-AY6
Chevrolet Equinox
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70 CU
Chevrolet Caprice PPV
MYA-6L45
Chevrolet Impala
M7W-6T70 CU
Chevrolet Impala Limited PPV
MH2-6T70
Chevrolet Impala Limited (Fleet Only)
MH2-6T70
Chevrolet Colorado
MYB-6L50
GMC Terrain Transmission
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
M7W-6T70-CU
GMC Canyon
MYB-6L50

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.0L turbo sand-cast cylinder block is a superior refinement of previous Ecotec engine block castings. It is dimensionally similar with previous Ecotec turbo block variants, while providing improved structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness.

Rotocast Aluminum Cylinder Head with Sodium Filled Exhaust Valves


The Ecotec 2.0L turbo's A356 aluminum cylinder head is cast using a Rotocast process for high strength, reduced machining and improved port flow. The head is also designed specifically for direct injection. The head uses stainless steel intake valves that are nitrided for improved durability and undercut to improve flow and reduce weight. The exhaust valves have sodium-filled stems that promote valve cooling.

Performance was the priority with the Ecotec 2.0L turbo, so the exhaust manifold mounted to the cylinder head is made of cast stainless steel. It is extremely durable and delivers exceptional airflow qualities.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. Continuously variable valve timing optimizes the engine's turbocharging system by adjusting valve timing at lower rpm for improved turbo response and greater torque delivery.

Cam phasing allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption. Cam phasing also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. Direct injection also reduces emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber. This reduces the charge temperature and lessens the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the Ecotec 2.0L turbo's direct injection system. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank.

Twin-Scroll Turbocharger


An electronically controlled turbocharger with a unique twin-scroll design is used to increase power in the Ecotec 2.0L turbo. The turbocharger generates maximum boost of about 20 psi. Because direct injection cools the intake process compared to port injection, it allows the Ecotec 2.0L turbo to safely operate at higher boost and a relatively higher compression than a conventional turbo engine, increasing both output and efficiency.

Air-to-Air Intercooler


An intake charge cooler enhances the power-increasing benefits of the turbocharging system. The Ecotec 2.0L turbo's air-to-air intercooler draws fresh air through a heat exchanger to reduce the temperature of compressed air that's forced through the intake system by the turbocharger.

Cam-Driven Vacuum Pump


A cam-driven vacuum pump ensures the availability of vacuum under all conditions, especially under boost, when the engine produces the opposite of vacuum. The pump is mounted at the rear of the cylinder head and is driven by the exhaust camshaft via a flexible coupling.



Overview

The Ecotec 2.0L turbo is tuned to deliver unique performance, efficiency and quietness. The Ecotec 2.0L turbo's development applied the best practices of technical centers in Europe and North America. It has been subjected to one of the toughest, most comprehensive validation processes ever at GM, which included millions of miles of real-world road testing in a broad range of climates and environments. The result is a powerful and efficient engine that delivers smoothness and quietness.

Type: 2.0L I-4 Turbo
Displacement: 1998 cc ( 122 ci )
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) L
Compression ratio: 9.2:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Spring Hill, Tennesee
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1-3-4-2
Bore x Stroke: 86.00 x 86.00
Fuel system: Direct Injection
Fuel Type: Premium recommended, not required. E85 Capable.
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Buick Verano 250 hp (187kW) @ 5300 RPM SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Buick Verano 260 lb-ft (353Nm) @ 2000 RPM SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6350 rpm ( forward gears )
Emissions controls: Three-way catalyst, Positive Crankcase Ventilation, Evaporative System
MATERIALS
Block: 319 Aluminum
Cylinder head: Semi-permanent-mold A356-T6 Aluminum cylinder head
Intake manifold: Aluminum
Exhaust manifold: Cast stainless steel
Crankshaft: Forged steel
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: DI ( direct injection )
Dual-scroll turbocharger
Dual CVCP ( continuously variable cam phasing )
Sodium-filled Iconel exhaust valves
Aluminum pistons with jet-spray cooling
Forged Powdered Metal (PM) connecting rods
Forged Steel crankshaft
Semi-permanent-mold 356 Al cylinder head
Variable pressure fuel rail ( 50-150 bar )
Stronger block bulkhead and deeper water jacket
Coil-on-plug ignition
Direct injection high-pressure multi hole injectors
58x engine position sensing
Stainless steel fuel system components
Dual converter system
Cam driven high pressure fuel pump
Mechanical brake vacuum pump
Buick Verano CXL Transmission
MHK-6T50
MYJ-FWD-F40-6-FWD

Aluminum Engine Block & Cylinder Heads


The 3.6L V-6 VVT's engine block and cylinder heads are cast from A319 aluminum alloy. This aluminum-intensive construction means less weight and greater efficiency than conventional cast-iron engines – and less weight translates to improved vehicle fuel economy. The sand-mold-cast block features strong cast-in iron bore liners, six-bolt main caps, and inter-bay breather vents.

Rotating Assembly with Oil-Spray Cooled Pistons


The crankshaft is manufactured from forged steel and the connecting rods are a sinter forging, as used on other 3.6L V-6 VVT engines. The pistons are made of lightweight cast aluminum and feature a friction-reducing polymer coating on the skirts, as well as fully floating wrist pins, which also help reduce friction. Less weight in the pistons means less reciprocating mass in the engine, which in turn means less inertia and greater operating efficiency.

The V-6 VVT engine family was developed with pressure-actuated oil squirters in all applications. The jets reduce piston temperature, which in turn allows the engine to produce more power without reducing long-term durability.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, which are cut by about 25 percent.

High-Pressure Engine-Driven Fuel Pump


An engine-driven high-pressure pump supplies fuel to the injectors to overcome the higher pressures inside the combustion chamber, as well as supply the multiple injection points of the direct injection nozzles. This variable-pressure high-pressure pump feeds a high-strength stainless steel fuel rail attached to the injectors.

Dual Overhead Cams with Four Valves per Cylinder and Silent Cam Drive


Four-valves-per-cylinder with inverted-tooth chain cam drive contributes to the smoothness and high output of the LFX. The engine incorporates a timing chain with an inverted tooth design. These smaller links engage at a lower impact speed, which decreases the noise generated. In conjunction with the smaller pitch chain, the number of teeth on the sprockets are increased, which increases the meshing frequency and further reduces noise and vibration.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing (VVT), or cam phasing, helps the 3.6L V-6 deliver optimal performance and efficiency, and reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability.

Composite Intake Manifold and Fully Isolated Composite Camshaft Covers


The upper intake manifold for the 3.6L V-6 is made from composite material and provides mass savings over an aluminum manifold, with a carefully designed structure that helps ensure quiet engine operation.



Overview

The 3.6L V-6 VVT (LLT) is part of GM's global family of high-feature V-6 , it applies the most advanced automotive engine technology available, from state-of-the-art casting processes to full four-cam phasing to ultra-fast data processing and torque-based engine management.

The 3.6L VVT DI delivers a market-leading balance of good specific output, high torque over a broad rpm band, fuel economy, low emissions and first-rate noise, vibration and harshness control, with exclusive durability enhancing features and very low maintenance.

Type: 3.6L V-6
Displacement: 3564cc ( 217 ci )
Engine Orientation: L= Longitudinal T=Transverse L
Compression ratio: 11.3:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly sites: St. Catharines, Ontario
Flint Engine South, Flint Mi.
Ramos Arizpe, Mexico
Melbourne, Australia
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1-2-3-4-5-6
Bore x stroke: 94 x 85.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 103
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 416.39
Fuel system: DI
Fuel Type: Regular Unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Buick Enclave ( with dual exhaust ) 288 hp ( 215 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Traverse ( with dual exhaust ) 288 hp ( 215 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Traverse ( with single exhaust ) 281 hp ( 210 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Acadia ( with dual exhaust ) 288 hp ( 215 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Buick Enclave ( with dual exhaust ) 270 lb-ft ( 366 Nm ) @ 3400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Traverse ( with dual exhaust ) 270 lb-ft ( 366 Nm ) @ 3400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Chevrolet Traverse ( with single exhaust ) 266 lb-ft ( 361 Nm ) @ 3400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
GMC Acadia ( with dual exhaust ) 270 lb-ft ( 366 Nm ) @ 3400 rpm SAE CERTIFIED
Maximum Engine Speed: 6700 rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight 164 / 361 (estimate) Acadia, Enclave, Traverse
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Dual catalytic converters
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS  
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum ( 319 semi permanent mold )
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( 319 Upper, and Lower )
Exhaust manifold: High-silicon moly cast iron
Main bearing caps: Sintered steel ( CU infiltrated )
Crankshaft: Forged steel ( 1038 V )
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Sinter forged steel
Additional features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing
Internal exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR )
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Secondary throat cut inlet ports
Direct injection fuel system
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Internal front cover damper plates
Cartridge style oil filter
Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life accessory drive belts
7.7mm IT chain system for all HFV6 applications
Coil-on-plug ignition
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
5W30 GF4 Mineral Oil
Synthetic Oil for Cadillac applications
Buick Enclave Transmission
M7X-6T75-AWD-CU
M7V-6T75-CU
Chevrolet Traverse Transmission
M7X-6T75-AWD-CU
M7V-6T75-CU
GMC Acadia Transmission
M7X-6T75-AWD-CU
M7V-6T75-CU

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The Duramax block features casting enhanced to support smoother and quieter engine operation. It uses a strong cast iron foundation known for its durability, with induction-hardened cylinder walls and five nodular iron main bearings. A die-cast aluminum lower crankcase strengthens the engine block and serves as the lower engine cover, while also reducing the engine's overall weight.

Working within the cylinder block is a robust rotating assembly that features a forged steel crankshaft, forged steel connecting rods and forged aluminum pistons. The crankshaft is surface-hardened by nitriding, a process widely acknowledged as the most effective means of limiting wear and ensuring durability.

Pistons


The pistons are redesigned without pin bushings to reduce reciprocating weight, which helps the engine rev quicker and respond more immediately to throttle changes. The connecting rods that are used with the pistons feature a smaller-diameter pin bore on the small end to support the strengthened pistons. Piston-cooling oil jets are located at the bottom of the cylinder bores and spray engine oil on the bottom of the pistons. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

Cylinder Heads


The Duramax diesel features an aluminum cylinder head design, with six head bolts per cylinder and four valves per cylinder. The aluminum material of the heads helps reduce the engine's overall weight, while the six-bolt design provides exceptional head-clamping strength – a must in a high-compression, turbocharged application.

2000-Bar Fuel System with Piezo Injectors


The Duramax uses a common-rail direct injection fuel system. Piezo injectors allow a more precise metering of the fuel, especially for very small quantities of injected fuel, which leads to a smoother idle and lower combustion noise.

Variable Geometry Turbo charging System


A variable-vane turbocharger is employed on the Duramax 6.6L. With the variable-geometry turbocharger, the engine delivers more power with lower exhaust emissions and no decrease in overall fuel efficiency. The system uses self-adjusting turbine vanes and sophisticated electronic controls to automatically adjust boost pressure and exhaust backpressure.

Emissions and Particulate Control Technology


The Duramax diesel features the latest in emission control technology, making it the cleanest Duramax engine ever produced, with NOx emissions reduced by at least 63 percent in the LML version.

B20 Biodiesel Capability


The LML version of the Duramax 6.6L turbo diesel is capable of running on B20 biodiesel, a fuel composed of 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent conventional diesel. B20 helps lower carbon dioxide emissions and lessens dependence on petroleum. It is a domestically produced, renewable fuel made primarily of plant matter – mostly soybean oil



Overview

With nearly 1.3 million Duramax diesel engines in operation no other automaker has as much diesel engine development experience in meeting the demands of the heavy-duty truck customer as General Motors. The Duramax 6.6L turbo diesel engine is strong, powerful and efficient. Features such as common rail fuel injection and aluminum heads with a six-bolt-per-cylinder design has helped cement the Duramax's foundation years ago and continues to make the Duramax diesel a relevant product.

Type: ENGINE DIESEL, 8 CYL, 6.6L, DI, V8, TURBO, DURAMAX
Displacement: 6.6L (403 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 16.0:1
Valve configuration: OHV
valves per cylinder: 4 valves per cylinder
Assembly site: "DMAX" Moraine, Ohio
Valve lifters: Mechanical roller
Firing order: 1 - 2 - 7 - 8 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103 mm x 99 mm
Fuel system: direct injection diesel with high pressure common rail
Fuel Type: Ultra-low sulfur diesel & B20 Biodiesel
Emissions controls: Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
EGR cooling – bypass system(LML only)
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Intake throttle
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Silverado HD
GMC Sierra HD
397 Hp ( 294kW ) @ 3000 RPM SAE certified
 
Applications: Torque:lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Silverado HD
GMC Sierra HD
765 Ft-lb ( 1037Nm) at 1600 RPM
Maximum Engine Speed: 3000 rpm Silverado and Sierra (Heavy Duty), Express and Savana
MATERIALS  
Block: cast iron
Cylinder head: cast aluminum
Intake manifold: cast aluminum
Exhaust manifold: cast nodular iron with steel pipe extension
Main bearing caps: cast nodular iron
Crankshaft: forged steel
Camshaft: steel
Connecting rods: forged steel, stress fractured
Additional features: charge air cooling
Recommended oil-change interval: Per the computerized Oil Life System. Requires CJ-4 Engine Oil to Maximize Life.
Recommended coolant change interval: 5 Years or 150,000 Miles
Capacities  
Engine Oil (qt/ L) 10/9.5
Chevrolet Silverado HD Transmission
MW7-LCT 1000
GMC Sierra HD Transmission
MW7-LCT 1000

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The Duramax block features casting enhanced to support smoother and quieter engine operation. It uses a strong cast iron foundation known for its durability, with induction-hardened cylinder walls and five nodular iron main bearings. A die-cast aluminum lower crankcase strengthens the engine block and serves as the lower engine cover, while also reducing the engine's overall weight.

Working within the cylinder block is a robust rotating assembly that features a forged steel crankshaft, forged steel connecting rods and forged aluminum pistons. The crankshaft is surface-hardened by nitriding, a process widely acknowledged as the most effective means of limiting wear and ensuring durability.

Pistons


The pistons are redesigned without pin bushings to reduce reciprocating weight, which helps the engine rev quicker and respond more immediately to throttle changes. The connecting rods that are used with the pistons feature a smaller-diameter pin bore on the small end to support the strengthened pistons. Piston-cooling oil jets are located at the bottom of the cylinder bores and spray engine oil on the bottom of the pistons. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

Cylinder Heads


The Duramax diesel features an aluminum cylinder head design, with six head bolts per cylinder and four valves per cylinder. The aluminum material of the heads helps reduce the engine's overall weight, while the six-bolt design provides exceptional head-clamping strength – a must in a high-compression, turbocharged application.

2000-Bar Fuel System with Piezo Injectors


The Duramax uses a common-rail direct injection fuel system. Piezo injectors allow a more precise metering of the fuel, especially for very small quantities of injected fuel, which leads to a smoother idle and lower combustion noise.

Variable Geometry Turbo charging System


A variable-vane turbocharger is employed on the Duramax 6.6L. With the variable-geometry turbocharger, the engine delivers more power with lower exhaust emissions and no decrease in overall fuel efficiency. The system uses self-adjusting turbine vanes and sophisticated electronic controls to automatically adjust boost pressure and exhaust backpressure.

Emissions and Particulate Control Technology


The Duramax diesel features the latest in emission control technology, making it the cleanest Duramax engine ever produced, with NOx emissions reduced by at least 63 percent in the LML version.

B20 Biodiesel Capability


The LML version of the Duramax 6.6L turbo diesel is capable of running on B20 biodiesel, a fuel composed of 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent conventional diesel. B20 helps lower carbon dioxide emissions and lessens dependence on petroleum. It is a domestically produced, renewable fuel made primarily of plant matter – mostly soybean oil



Overview

With nearly 1.3 million Duramax diesel engines in operation no other automaker has as much diesel engine development experience in meeting the demands of the heavy-duty truck customer as General Motors. The Duramax 6.6L turbo diesel engine is strong, powerful and efficient. Features such as common rail fuel injection and aluminum heads with a six-bolt-per-cylinder design has helped cement the Duramax's foundation years ago and continues to make the Duramax diesel a relevant product.

Type: ENGINE DIESEL, 8 CYL, 6.6L, DI, V8, TURBO, DURAMAX
Displacement: 6.6L (403 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 16.0:1
Valve configuration: OHV
Valves per cylinder 4 valves per cylinder
Assembly site/s: "DMAX" Moraine, Ohio
Valve lifters: Mechanical roller
Firing order: 1 - 2 - 7 - 8 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 103 mm x 99 mm
Fuel system: direct injection diesel with high pressure common rail
Fuel Type: Ultra-low sulfur diesel & B20 Biodiesel
Emissions controls: Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)
Intake throttle
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savana
260 hp (194 kW) @ 3100 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savana
525 lb-ft. (712 Nm) @ 1600 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 3100 rpm Silverado and Sierra (Heavy Duty), Express and Savana
MATERIALS
Block: cast iron
Cylinder head: cast aluminum
Intake manifold: cast aluminum
Exhaust manifold: cast nodular iron with steel pipe extension
Main bearing caps: cast nodular iron
Crankshaft: forged steel
Camshaft: steel
Connecting rods: forged steel, stress fractured
Additional features: charge air cooling
Recommended oil-change interval: Per the computerized Oil Life System. Requires CJ-4 Engine Oil to Maximize Life.
Recommended coolant change interval: 5 Years or 150,000 Miles
Capacities
Engine Oil (qt/ L) 10/9.5
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The engine block was developed with math-based tools and data acquired in GM's racing programs, and provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. The bulkheads accommodate six-bolt, cross-bolted main-bearing caps that limit crank flex and stiffen the engine's structure. A structural oil pan further stiffens the powertrain.

Within the LS3 block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and connecting rods, as well as high-strength, aluminum-alloy pistons. The flat-top pistons are also lightweight, which enhances high-rpm performance, as they enable the engine to rev quicker.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The LS3's cylinder heads feature rectangular intake ports that support exceptional airflow. They support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque. The intake ports that feed the combustion chambers, as well as the D-shaped exhaust ports, are designed for excellent high-rpm airflow.

High-Flow Intake Manifold with Acoustic Shell


The LS3's intake manifold ports are designed to match cylinder head. The composite manifold is manufactured with a lost core process to improve runner-to-runner variation and to reduce flow losses. Acoustic foam is sandwiched between the outside top of the intake manifold and an additional "skull cap" acoustic shell to reduce radiated engine noise.

Dry Sump-Style Oiling System with Manual Transmission


Corvette models equipped with a manual transmission feature a dry sump oiling system which promotes exceptional lubrication system performance during extended high-rpm use under high cornering loads.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The LS3 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.





Overview

The 6.2L LS3 is a direct descendant of the original small-block, sharing key dimensions. As with other members of the small-block engine family, one of the enablers of the LS3's balance of performance and efficiency is great airflow throughout. Intake flow was improved over previous engines by straightening out and optimizing the flow path from the intake manifold into the cylinder heads, while the exhaust ports are also designed for greater flow. The engine's efficiency also provides an optimum reduction in emissions.

Type: 6.2L Gen IV V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162cc (376.0 ci)
Compression ratio: 10.7:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Silao, Mexico
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x Stroke: 103.25 x 92mm
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: Premium fuel recommended, not required
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Bore Center (mm) 111.76
Engine Mass ( kg/lbs ) 183/403
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Perfomance Sedan SS 415 hp ( 309 kW) @ 5900 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Perfomance Sedan SS 415 lb-ft ( 563 Nm ) @ 4600 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6600 rpm
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Powder metal
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron with undercut and rolled fillets
Camshaft: Hollow steel
Connecting rods: Forged powder metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Oil level sensor
Oil Life System
Chevrolet Camaro SS (Coupe, Convertible) Transmission
M10-TR6060
MYC-6L80
Chevrolet SS Performance Sedan Transmission
MYC-6L80
MER-TR6060
Chevrolet Camaro SS Coupe Transmission
M10-TR6060

Cylinder Block


The LT4's Gen-V aluminum cylinder block shares two key design elements with GM's original small-block V-8: a 90-degree cylinder angle and 4.400-inch bore centers. The bore and stroke dimensions are: 4.06-inch (103.25 mm) bore x 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke.

Compared to the previous Gen-IV small block, the Gen-V's aluminum cylinder block casting is all-new, but based on the same basic architecture. It was refined and modified to accommodate the mounting of the engine-driven fuel pump and vacuum pump. It also incorporates new engine mount attachments, new knock sensor locations, improved sealing and oil-spray piston cooling.

Rotating assembly and windage tray


Within the Gen-V block is a durable rotating assembly that includes a steel crankshaft and 6.125-inch-long, powder-metal connecting rods, as well as high-strength, forged aluminum pistons. The LT4’s connecting rods are based on the design of those used in the LT1, but are specially machined for lower weight – an attribute that reduces reciprocating mass and enables the engine to rev more quickly.

The crankshaft in the Gen-V small block is located with new nodular main bearing caps - a significant upgrade over more conventional grey iron main caps. Nodular caps are stronger and can better absorb vibrations and other harmonics to help produce smoother, quieter performance.

A windage tray is also used with the Gen-V engine, which enhances performance and efficiency by improving oil flow control and bay-to-bay crankcase breathing. The cylinder block and main bearing caps maintain the optimal crankcase "windows" that were perfected on the Gen-IV engine.

The LT4 has 10:1 compression ratio, which is comparatively high for a supercharged engine, but it is enabled by the more precise fuel control of direct injection.

Forged Aluminum Pistons


The LT4 uses unique forged aluminum pistons with a structure designed for the more intense cylinder pressures that come with forced induction. They also have a unique head topography that is essential to the direct injection system. The “bowl” and shape of the top of the piston head is designed to promote thorough mixing of the air and fuel – a dished center section helps direct the fuel spray from the injector – to ensure complete combustion, which improves performance and efficiency, particularly on cold starts.

To further reduce wear, the piston skirt is coated with a polymer material, which eliminates bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston's up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston's movement. The wrist pins, which attach the piston to the connecting rod, were developed for maximum durability, with a large outer diameter and a tapered inner diameter.

The pins "float" inside the rod bushing and pin bores in the piston barrel. Compared to a conventional fixed pin assembly, in which the connecting rod is fixed to the piston's wrist pin and the pin rotates in the pin bore, the floating pins reduce stress on the pin. They allow tighter pin to pin-bore tolerances and reduce noise generated as the piston moves through the cylinder. The benefit is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

Oiling System


The oiling system is revised and features a new, dual-pressure-control and variable-displacement vane pump with increased flow capacity. As with the Gen-III/Gen-IV engines, the oil pump is driven by the crankshaft. Variable displacement enables the pump to efficiently deliver oil pump flow as demanded. Dual pressure-control enables operation at a very efficient oil pressure at lower rpm coordinated with the Active Fuel Management and operation at a higher pressure at higher engine speeds providing a more robust lube system with aggressive engine operation.

The LT4 engine features a dry-sump oiling system with a 10.5-quart capacity. All Gen-V engines are designed to be used with GM's Dexos semi-synthetic motor oil. "Thinner" oil is used, too, which helps reduce friction to enhance efficiency. The LT4 6.2L uses 5W30.

Oil-Spray Piston Cooling


All Gen-V engines feature oil-spray piston cooling, in which eight oil-spraying jets in the engine block drench the underside of each piston and the surrounding cylinder wall with an extra layer of cooling, friction-reducing oil. The oil spray reduces piston temperature, promoting extreme output and long-term durability. The extra layer of oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

PCV-Integrated Rocker Covers


One of the most distinctive features of the Gen V family is its domed rocker covers, which house a patent-pending, integrated positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system that enhances oil economy and oil life, while reducing oil consumption and contributing to low emissions. The rocker covers also hold the direct-mount ignition coils for the coil-near-plug ignition system. Between the individual coil packs, the domed sections of the covers contain baffles that separate oil and air from the crankcase gases – about three times the oil/air separation capability of previous engines.

Camshaft Design


A refined camshaft helps balance the LT4's remarkable output with silky, tractable low-rpm operation. The camshaft operates the engine's valves and its design is crucial to both power and smoothness. The torque-enhancing benefits of the supercharger allowed engineers to develop a "softer," lower-lift camshaft for the LT4, compared to the typical high-rev, high-power exotic car engine. The result is smooth operation at low speed, particularly at idle.

The hydraulic roller-lifter camshaft's specifications lift include: 0.492"/0.551" intake/exhaust lift, 189/223 crank angle degrees intake/exhaust duration at 0.050 tappet lift and a 120 degree cam angle lobe separation.

Dual-Equal Cam Phasing


All Gen V engines feature dual-equal camshaft phasing (variable valve timing), which works with Active Fuel Management to enhance fuel economy, while also maximizing engine performance for given demands and conditions.

At idle, for example, the cam is at the full advanced position, allowing exceptionally smooth idling. Under other conditions, the phaser adjusts to deliver optimal valve timing for performance, driveability and fuel economy. At high rpm it may retard timing to maximize airflow through the engine and increase horsepower. At low rpm it can advance timing to increase torque. Under a light loads, it can retard timing at all engine speeds to improve fuel economy.

A vane-type phaser is installed on the front of the camshaft to change it's angular orientation relative to the sprocket, thereby adjusting the timing of valve operation on the fly. It is a dual-equal cam phasing system that adjusts camshaft timing at the same rate for both intake and exhaust valves. The system allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range, and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement) without sacrificing overall engine response, or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions.

The vane phaser is actuated by hydraulic pressure and flow from engine oil, and managed by a solenoid that controls oil flow to the phaser.

Cylinder Head Design


The Gen-V small-block's cylinder head design builds on the excellent, racing-proven airflow attributes of previous small-block heads and matches it with a direct-injection combustion system. It supports tremendous airflow at higher rpm for a broad horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

Compared to other Gen-V variants, the LT4 uses aluminum cylinder heads produced with a rotocast manufacturing process, which rotates the head mold as the molten alloy cools and essentially eliminates porosity, or microscopic pockets of air trapped in the casting. Rotocasting delivers a stronger part that helps maintain performance and structural integrity over the life of the engine.

The heads are cast in a premium A356T6 alloy, which better manages the heat generated in a supercharged engine. A356T6 also pays dividends in the thinner bridge area between the intake and exhaust valves, where effective heat dissipation is crucial to both performance and long-term durability.

Compared to the naturally aspirated LT1 head, which features 59.02cc combustion chambers, the LT4 has a slightly larger 65.47cc chamber size designed to complement the volume of the piston’s dish. The chamber size and piston dish work together to produce a 10:1 compression ratio – a full 1.5 points lower than the LT1's 11.5:1 compression. Lower compression than a comparable naturally aspirated engine is required of a supercharged application to stave off knock or detonation that can occur as a result of the forced-induction engine’s higher cylinder pressures.

As with other Gen-V variants, the LT4 head features large, straight and rectangular intake ports that feature a slight twist to enhance mixture motion. This is complemented by a reversal of the intake and exhaust valve positions as compared to the Gen-IV design. The exhaust port shapes are optimized for the new valve locations, with new port opening locations at the manifold face.

Large, lightweight valves are used in the LT4's heads, including 2.13-inch (54mm) titanium intake and 1.59-inch (40.4mm) hollow sodium exhaust valves. The exhaust valves are manufactured from a high-chromium steel alloy called 21-43 (SilChrome 1 is used at the tip only, the valve is made from 21-43). At normal operating temperatures, the sodium inside the valve stem melts and becomes liquid. The liquid sodium improves conductivity, promoting heat transfer away from the valve face to the cooler end of the stem, where it more readily dissipates through the valve guide. This maintains a lower, more uniform valve temperature, reducing wear on the valve seat for a consistent seal between the valve and head over the life of the engine.

The valves are held at 12.5 degrees intake/12 degrees exhaust angles vs. the Gen-IV’s 15-degree angle. Additionally, the valves are splayed at 2.61 degrees intake/2.38 degrees exhaust to reduce shrouding and enable greater airflow.

Valvetrain components include durable valve springs and roller-pivot rocker arms with a 1.8 ratio – the amount of movement on the valve side of the rocker arm in comparison with the pushrod side. And speaking of pushrods, the Gen-V small-block features large-diameter 8.7mm (outside diameter) components that provide exceptional stiffness that enables excellent high-speed valvetrain dynamic performance.

Given the LS4's pressurized induction, special attention was paid on sealing, too. The head gaskets are extra-robust, seven-layer stainless steel, and the 12mm cylinder head bolts are hardened stainless.

Next-generation Eaton supercharger


State-of-the-art supercharging technology is the foundation of the LT4's remarkable performance. The supercharger is an air pump driven by the engine's crankshaft. It forces more air into the engine's combustion chambers than the engine could otherwise draw on its own. The increased volume of oxygen allows the engine to efficiently process more fuel, and thus generate more power.

The LT4 employs Eaton's new, twin-rotor R1740 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) supercharger, which spins up to 20,000 rpm – 5,000 rpm more than the supercharger on the previous LS9 engine. The rotors are smaller in diameter than the LS9's supercharger, which contributes to their higher-rpm capability – and enables them to produce power-enhancing boost earlier in the rpm band. That boost is achieved more efficiently via a more direct discharge port that creates less turbulence, reducing heat and speeding airflow into the engine.

The LT4 supercharger displaces 1.7L and generates maximum boost pressure of 9.71 pounds per square inch (0.67 bar). The TVS rotor design features four lobes on each of the supercharger's pair of rotors. The spiral-shaped rotors intermesh with each other and the four-lobe configuration provides about 20 percent more airflow than conventional three-lobe designs, as well as an improvement in thermal efficiency of up to 15 percent. Moreover, parasitic power loss – the amount of power the engine uses to operate the supercharger – is reduced 35 percent. That improves both supercharger response time and the engine’s overall efficiency.

Even with its integrated supercharger/intercooler assembly mounted in the valley between the cylinder heads, the engine is only about 1 inch (25 mm) taller than the Corvette Stingray’s LT1 engine.

An electronically controlled throttle is mounted to the supercharger inlet. It is a single-bore design with an 87mm bore diameter and features a "contactless" design that is more durable and enables greater control.

The design of the supercharger system incorporates advanced features for noise reduction. The rear cover of the supercharger gear case has changed from an Aluminum casting to a constained-layer damping material designed to absorb radiated noise from the supercharger drive gears. Additionally, the supercharger lid has a constrained-layer damping panel assembled over the discharge port to damp the high frequency content of the air pulsations exiting the supercharger discharge port. This reduces the traditional "whine" noise associated with superchargers and gives a refined yet powerful and pleasing sound to the engine.

Dual-Brick Air-to-Liquid Intercooler


An advanced intercooling system increases the LT4's performance and extends its supercharger's benefits. The engine's charge cooler is integrated in the supercharger case adjacent to the rotors, with two air-to-liquid cooling "bricks" that substantially lower the temperature of air used in the combustion process.

Intercoolers are familiar features on supercharged and turbocharged engines. Similar in concept to an engine’s radiator, intercoolers cool the air pumped by the charging device into the cylinders. Cooler air is denser air, which means more oxygen in a given volume, resulting in optimal combustion and more power. Traditionally, intercoolers look like small radiators mounted somewhere outside the engine, with air fed into the engine through a plumbing network.

The LT4's intercooling system raises the bar in both packaging and efficiency. It uses two low-profile, aluminum clamshell heat exchangers mounted longitudinally adjacent to the rotors in the supercharger case. Air pumped by the supercharger flows directly through these bricks to the intake ports on the cylinder heads without the need to channel the air through plumbing to the front of the vehicle and back. The bricks are cooled by their own coolant circuit, with a remote pump and heat exchanger mounted in front of the Corvette's radiator. The temperature of air fed to the LT4's cylinder heads is reduced by up to 140 degrees F (60 degrees C), substantially increasing the amount of oxygen available for the combustion process.

Direct Injection


Direct injection is featured on all Gen-V engines. This technology moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and it operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. That allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions.

The pistons play an integral role in the direct injection system, as they feature dished heads designed to direct the fuel spray for a more complete combustion. Design of this advanced combustion system was optimized after thousands of hours of computational analysis, representing one of the most comprehensively engineered combustion systems ever developed by General Motors.

To support the requirements of an engine producing approximately 40 percent more power than the naturally aspirated LT1, the supercharged LT4 uses higher-capacity, 141 lb./hr fuel injectors. The LT1 injectors are rated at 123 lb./hr.

High-Pressure Fuel Pump


The LT4 direct injection system features a new higher fuel pressure pump, capable of pressures up to 20Mpa (200bar). The LT1 high pressure pump is capable of 15Mpa (150bar). Direct Injection requires the high-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump in addition to a conventional, fuel-tank-mounted pump. On all Gen-V engines, the pump is mounted in the "valley" between cylinder heads – beneath the intake manifold. It is driven by the camshaft at the rear of the engine.

A "soft stop" control strategy for the pump's internal solenoid significantly reduces the characteristic "ticking" sound of direct injection systems. Mounting the pump in valley, where it is covered by an acoustically treated intake manifold, also helps reduce noise, while also maintaining the tight, compact packaging for which all small-blocks have been known.

Active Fuel Management


Active Fuel Management temporarily deactivates four of the cylinders and seamlessly reactivates them when the driver demands full power. When cylinders are deactivated, the engine’s pumping work is reduced, which translates into real-world fuel economy improvements. The transition takes less than 20 milliseconds and is virtually imperceptible.

The key to AFM's efficiency and seamless operation is a set of two-stage hydraulic valve lifters, which allows the lifters of deactivated cylinders to operate without actuating the valves. In engineering terms, this allows the working cylinders to achieve better thermal, volumetric and mechanical efficiency and lowering cyclical combustion variation from cylinder to cylinder. As a result, AFM delivers better fuel economy and lower operating costs. The only mechanical components required are special valve lifters for cylinders that are deactivated, and their control system. Active Fuel Management relies on three primary components: Collapsible or "de-ac" (deactivation) valve lifters, a Lifter Oil Manifold Assembly (LOMA) and the engine controller, which determines when to deactivate cylinders.

Exhaust Manifolds


The LT4 exhaust manifolds are constructed of cast Austenitic Stainless Steel. The smooth flow passages and equal length runner geometry were carefully developed using CFD analysis to maximize the volumetric efficiency tuning of the exhaust gas flow.

LT4 exhaust manifold flow performance is equivalent to the LS7/LS9 tube and jacket design at lower overall cost, optimized exhaust sound characteristics, and more consistent exhaust flow.

The manifolds are fitted with a pair of close-coupled catalytic converters that heat quickly, achieving light-off temperature and closed-loop operations in seconds.

58X Ignition System


The Gen-V family uses an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.

In conjunction with 58X crankshaft timing, the Gen-V applies the latest digital cam-timing technology. The cam sensor is located in the front engine cover, and it reads a 4X sensor target on the on the cam phaser's rotor which is attached to front end of the cam. The target ring has four equally spaced segments that communicate the camshaft’s position more quickly and accurately than previous systems with a single segment.

The dual 58X/4X measurement ensures extremely accurate timing for the life of the engine. Moreover, it provides an effective backup system in the event one sensor fails.

Additional Features



  • Electronic Power Steering: All Gen-V engines have Electronic Power Steering and do not incorporate a conventional, hydraulic power steering system in its accessory-drive system. This enhances both performance and fuel efficiency.
  • Air Induction Humidity Sensor: This feature ensures optimal combustion efficiency, regardless of the surrounding air's humidity.
  • Coil-on-Plug Ignition: The Gen-V's individual coil-near-plug ignition features advanced coils that are compact and mounted on the rocker covers, although they are positioned differently than on Gen-IV engine. An individual coil for each spark plug delivers maximum voltage and consistent spark density, with no variation between cylinders.
  • Iridium-Tip Spark Plugs: The spark plugs have an iridium electrode tip and an iridium core in the conductor, offering higher internal resistance while maintaining optimal spark density over its useful life. The electrode design improves combustion efficiency.


E92 Engine Controller


Operation and performance of the Gen-V family is overseen by this next-generation engine controller.











Overview:

The LT4 is the most powerful production engine ever offered in a General Motors vehicle. The LT4 engine builds on the design strengths of the previous LS9 supercharged engine used in the sixth-generation Corvette ZR1 and leverages the technologies introduced on the seventh-generation Corvette Stingray, including direct injection, cylinder deactivation and continuously variable valve timing, to take Corvette performance to an all-new plateau.

The LT4 engine is based on the same Gen 5 small block foundation as the LT1 6.2L naturally aspirated engine, incorporating several unique features designed to support its higher output and the greater cylinder pressures created by forced induction.


Type: 6.2L Gen V V-8 Small Block
Displacement: 6162cc (376 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 10.0:1
Valve configuration: Overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Tonawanda, NY and Bowling Green, KY
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 8 - 7 - 2 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3
Bore x stroke: 103.25 x 92mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel Type: Premium required
Maximum Engine Speed: 6600 RPM
Emissions controls: Catalytic converter
Three-way catalyst
Positive crankcase ventilation
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Corvette Z06 650 hp (485kW) @ 6400 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS-V 640 hp (477 kW) @ 6400 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft ( Nm )
Chevrolet Corvette Z06 650 lb-ft. (861Nm) @ 3600 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS-V 630 lb-ft ( 854Nm) @ 3600 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Cast Aluminum Supercharger
Exhaust manifold: Cast Stainless (Corvette); Fabricated Stainless (CTSv)
Main bearing caps: Cast Nodular
Crankshaft: Forged steel
Camshaft: Billet Steel
Connecting rods: Forged Powder Metal
Additional features: 1.74 L/rev Supercharger
Integrated dual coolant-to-air-intercoolers
Active Fuel ManagementTM
Variable Valve Timing ( VVT )
Electronic throttle control
Extended life coolant
Extended life spark plugs
Oil Life Monitor System
Dexos 5W30
Dual-pressure control and variable displacement oil pump
Dry sump (Corvette only)
58x crank timing
Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Transmission
M5U-8L90
MEK-TR6070

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The Vortec 4.3L features an iron cylinder block based on the small-block V-8 architecture. Inside the block, the rotating assembly consists of a strong iron crankshaft, lightweight aluminum pistons and cracked powder-metal connecting rods.

Electronic Direct Ignition System


A trio of ignition coils is mounted above the former location of the conventional distributor (a unique "stub" shaft is used to drive the oil pump). Each coil is directed by the engine's controller to fire two cylinders. The ignition system uses a 58X crankshaft-sensing reluctor wheel, similar to those used in GM's Gen IV V-8 engines.

Additional details


The Vortec 4.3L incorporates a number of features designed to optimize performance and durability, while helping keep down ownership costs. They include:

  • Machined water pump and specific gasket delivers better pump-to-block sealing
  • Cast rocker arms offer more precise tolerances
  • Low-permeable intake sealing system helps ensure minimal fuel emissions seeping out of the intake system
  • Three layers of insulated tubing for the exhaust manifolds helps reduce noise
  • Extended-life spark plugs are designed to go 100,000 miles (160,000 km) without the need for replacement
  • Extended-life Dex-Cool coolant maintains its cooling and corrosion-inhibiting properties for 150,000 miles (240,000 km)



4.3L V-6 (LU3)

4.3L V-6 (LU3)

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Overview

The Vortec 4.3L V-6's excellent torque, fuel efficiency, durability, low cost of ownership and steady improvement all contribute to its popularity as a base engine in GM's light-duty full-size trucks and vans. A counter-rotating balance shaft helps balance primary crank vibration, while the latest in electronic controls and the inherent low-end torque delivery of this overhead-valve engine have combined to make the engine very popular.

Type: 4.3L Gen1e V-6 ( LU3 )
Displacement: 4300cc (262 ci)
Engine Orientation Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 9.2:1
Valve configuration: overhead valves
Valves per cylinder 2
Assembly site: Romulus, Mich.
Valve lifters: hydraulic roller
Firing order: 1 - 6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 101.6 x 88.39mm
Fuel system: sequential fuel injection
Fuel type: regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savanna
195 hp ( 145 kw ) @ 4600 rpm
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Express
GMC Savanna
260 lb-ft ( 353 Nm ) @ 2800 rpm
Maximum Engine Speed: 5600 rpm
Emissions controls: evaporative system
Bin 5 emissions ( see additional features )
returnless fuel system
MATERIALS
Block: cast iron
Cylinder head: cast iron
Intake manifold: lower - cast aluminum
upper - composite
Exhaust manifold: high silicon molybdenum
cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: cast iron
Crankshaft: cast iron
Camshaft: steel
Connecting rods: powder metal (2006 interim implementation)
Additional features: Investment cast roller rocker arms
extended life spark plugs
Three layer exhaust shields
extended life coolant
GF4 oil
Dual close coupled 102 converters ( Bin 5 emissions )
4X cam timing
58X crank timing
Dual knock sensors
Threaded block heater
Oil pump stub shaft
Oil pan with noise abatement ribs
Electronic throttle control
Aluminum front cover
DIS ignition system
Chevrolet Express (3 Dr. Cargo) Transmission
M30-4L60E
GMC Savana (3 Dr. Cargo) Transmission
M30-4L60E

eAssist System


The eAssist system uses power stored in an advanced, 115V lithium-ion battery and channels it to a 15-kW motor generator to provide an electrical boost in various driving scenarios, optimizing engine and transmission operation and increasing fuel economy through:

  • Regenerative braking, which provides up to 15 kW of electricity to charge the battery
  • Providing up to 11 kW (15 hp) of electric power assistance during acceleration
  • Automatic engine shut-off when the vehicle is stopped
  • Aggressive fuel cut-off during deceleration down to zero vehicle speed, enabled by the torque smoothing provided by the motor-generator unit
  • Intelligent charge/discharge of the high-voltage battery.

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.4L's sand-cast cylinder provides excellent structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness. The main bearing bulkheads, which support the crank bearing, as well as the cylinder bore walls, have been significantly strengthened to support increased engine loads.

Aluminum Pistons with Jet-Spray Cooling


The Ecotec 2.4L's pistons use lightweight aluminum pistons, for less reciprocating mass inside the engine that enhances efficiency, decreases vibration and bolsters the feeling of performance as rpm increases. Each piston has its own directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

Cylinder Head


The Ecotec 2.4L has a SPM 319 aluminum cylinder head that is cast with advanced semi-permanent mold technology. This provides excellent strength, reduced machining and optimal port flow. The cylinder head is designed specifically for direct injection into each combustion chamber and includes premium valve seat, valve guide and valve materials. The cylinder head also has integral cast oil passages that feed a set of internal oil control valves that activate cam phasers, enabling variable valve timing.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. This arrangement is integrated on the Ecotec 2.4L's lightweight aluminum cylinder head. Both the intake and exhaust cams have hydraulically operated vane-type phasers that are managed by a solenoid and directed by the engine control module (ECM).

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. Direct injection also reduces emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber. This reduces the charge temperature and lessens the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the direct injection system in the Ecotec 2.4L. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank.



Overview

The Ecotec 2.4L regular production option code LUK, uses a state-of-the-art lithium-ion battery system and electric motor-generator to enable regenerative braking capability to improve fuel economy by an estimated 25 percent. The engine is based on the proven Ecotec 2.4L engine, but with features to support the eAssist system.

Type: Ecotec 2.4L I-4 VVT DI
Displacement: 2384 cc (145 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 11.2:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Spring Hill, Tenn.
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 88.00 x 98.00 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 96.00 mm
Fuel system: Direct injection
Fuel type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Buick Regal
Buick Lacrosse
182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Buick Regal
Buick Lacrosse
172 lb-ft. ( 233 Nm ) @ 4900 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7000 rpm ( forward gears )
Emissions controls: SAI system, PZEV capable
Evaporative system
Catalytic converter
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: High silicon molybdenum, cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Aluminum bedplate
Crankshaft: Cast nodular iron
Camshaft: Cast nodular iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Electric Drive System - eAssist
Belt driven Motor/ Generator and Lithium Ion Battery System Liquid cooled Motor Generator (MGU) with air cooled power electronics and battery pack
Maximum Electric Generating Power 15 kW @ 1570 - 3180 RPM*
Maximum Electric Motor Torque (Cranking) 150 N-m*
Maximum Electric Motor Torque (Electric Assist) 107 N-m @ 1000 RPM*
Maximum Electric Motor Power (Electric Assist) 11.2kW (15 hp) mechanical @ 1000 - 2200 RPM*
Lithium Ion Battery 115 V, 0.5 kW-hr, 15 kW peak power
*All torque and speed values are @ engine crankshaft
Buick LaCrosse Transmission
MHH-6T40-Aux Pump
Buick Regal
MHH-6T40-Aux Pump
Chevrolet Impala Transmission
MHH-6T40-Aux Pump

Cylinder Block and Structural Oil Pan


The Ecotec 1.4L cylinder block is made of strong gray cast iron, with five reinforced main bearings. To minimize weight, it features hollow-frame construction, making it about 20 percent lighter than a conventional casting. The block also incorporates a gray cast iron bedplate that helps reduce engine vibration; and the cylinders within the block are triple-honed for a smoother finish that minimizes piston friction and overall wear, while also optimizing oil and fuel consumption.

An aluminum oil pan is designed as a key structural component of the engine, adding stiffness that helps improve vibration characteristics.

Variable-Flow Oil Pump


The Ecotec 1.4L uses a unique variable-flow oiling system that helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, it is accomplished with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The Ecotec 1.4L's variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine's demand for oil. This prevents using energy to pump oil that is not required for proper engine operation.

Variable Valve Timing


The dual-overhead camshaft arrangement of the engine employs dual, continuously variable cam phasing to adjust the engine valves' opening and closing timing for optimal performance, fuel efficiency and emissions across the rpm.

Cylinder Head


An aluminum cylinder head with dual-overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder is used on the Ecotec 1.4L turbo. The head's intake port design optimizes performance, efficiency and emissions by promoting greater charge motion of the intake air and a more complete burn of the air/fuel mixture.

Hollow-Cast and Chain-Driven Camshafts


The pair of camshafts in the Ecotec 1.4L is hollow and lighter than conventional solid shafts. Along with helping reduce the overall weight of the engine, they lower the inertia of the valvetrain, allowing the engine to rev higher and more quickly. The camshafts are driven by durable chains.

Roller-Finger Camshaft Followers


A low-mass DOHC roller-finger camshaft follower is used to minimize friction and maintenance. It operates with very low frictional losses, helping enhance efficiency and lower emissions. The hydraulic lash adjusters and the chain cam drive require no maintenance during the life of the engine.

Electronically controlled thermostat


The coolant thermostat's operating point is electronically controlled to optimize engine temperatures during different phases of operation to enhance fuel efficiency. The engine control module monitors sensors and controls the thermostat based on mapping that takes into account the wide range of engine operating conditions, including temperature and load.

Coil-on-plug ignition and platinum-tipped spark plugs


Volt's Ecotec 1.4L engine features a coil-on-plug ignition system and platinum-tipped spark plugs, which reduce maintenance and promote optimal performance and efficiency. With the coil-on-plug design, individual ignition coils are connected via a short lead wire to the spark plugs over each cylinder. This direct ignition system design eliminates the need to route spark plug wires in the engine compartment, while ensuring maximum spark energy for each plug.

The platinum-tipped plugs are designed to last for 100,000 miles without the need for replacement, reducing the need for and cost of maintenance.



Overview

The heart of the Chevrolet Volt is its exclusive Voltec propulsion system, the world's first plug-in, electrically driven, extended-range system in a production vehicle. It delivers ultra-high efficiency unlike that in any other vehicle, with between 25 and 50 miles of pure electric driving (depending on terrain, driving techniques and temperature), and an onboard Ecotec 1.4L (LUU) gasoline engine that extends the Volt's range to a total of up to 379 miles.

Importantly, the 1.4L Ecotec engine does not provide drive power to the wheels. That's accomplished with a 111-kW (149-hp) electric drive unit. Positioned under the hood next to the engine, it packages a pair of electric motors and a multi-mode transaxle with continuously variable capability. The engine serves as s generator to provide power to the vehicle's electric motors.

Type: Ecotec 1.4L I-4 VVT
Displacement: 1398 cc (85 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal)
T ( transverse )
T
Compression ratio: 10.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts, double continuously variable cam phaser intake and exhaust (DCVCP)
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Aspern, Austria
Valve lifters: Roller finger followers
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 73.4 x 82.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 78
Fuel system: Sequential multi-port fuel injectors with electronic throttle control
Fuel type: Premium unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac ELR 84 Hp (63 kW) @4800 rpm
Maximum Engine Speed: 4800 rpm
Emissions Summary: close-coupled and underfloor catalytic converters; 58x ignition system; returnless fuel rail; fast light-off O2 sensor
MATERIALS
Block: Gray cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Stainless steel
Crankshaft: Hollow cast iron
Camshaft: Hollow cast iron
Connecting rods: Cast iron
Additional features: Low-mass hollow-frame cast iron block
Chain-driven cams
Roller-finger camshaft followers
Variable-flow oil pump.
Electronically controlled thermostat
Coil on plug ignition

Not Applicable

Chevrolet ELR Transmission
MKA-E-Flex Ice Drive Unit, FWD
Chevrolet Volt Transmission
MKA-E-Flex Ice Drive Unit, FWD

Cylinder Block


The Ecotec 1.4L turbo's cylinder block is made of strong gray cast iron, with five reinforced main bearings. The block offers excellent thermal properties that suit the cylinder pressure and loads generated by a turbocharger system. To minimize weight, it features hollow-frame construction, making it about 20 percent lighter than a conventional casting.

Rotating Assembly


With a reinforced, solid-cast crankshaft, the Ecotec 1.4L offers strength and stiffness, particularly at higher rpm, to support the boosted cylinder pressure of the turbo system. The connecting rods are forged steel and the lightweight, hypereutectic pistons are designed with a thicker crown area and a unique ring pack to withstand the boost pressure and heat generated by the turbo system.

Variable-Flow Oil Pump


The Ecotec 1.4L turbo uses a unique variable-flow oiling system that helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, it is accomplished with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The Ecotec 1.4L turbo's variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine's demand for oil. This prevents using energy to pump oil that is not required for proper engine operation.

Structural Oil Pan


An aluminum oil pan is designed as a key structural component of the engine, adding stiffness that helps improve vibration characteristics.

Cylinder Head


An aluminum cylinder head with dual-overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder is used on the Ecotec 1.4L turbo. The head's intake port design optimizes performance, efficiency and emissions by promoting greater charge motion of the intake air and a more complete burn of the air/fuel mixture. Sodium-filled exhaust valves are designed for the higher combustion temperatures of the turbo system.

Variable Valve Timing


The dual-overhead camshaft arrangement of the engine employs dual, continuously variable cam phasing to adjust the engine valves' opening and closing timing for optimal performance, fuel efficiency and emissions across the rpm.

Integrated Turbocharger and Exhaust Manifold


The Ecotec 1.4L turbo uses a unique, integrated turbocharger and exhaust manifold. The turbocharger size was chosen with an emphasis on low speed torque and throttle response. It requires fewer parts, is lighter than a conventional system, helps lower engine compartment temperatures and helps the engine warm up faster. The turbocharger is lubricated by engine oil and is liquid cooled for long-term reliability.

Electronically Controlled Thermostat


The coolant thermostat's operating point is electronically controlled to optimize engine temperatures during different phases of operation to enhance fuel efficiency. The engine control module monitors sensors and controls the thermostat based on mapping that takes into account the wide range of engine operating conditions, including temperature and load.



Overview

The turbocharged Ecotec 1.4L is part of GM's small-displacement, power-dense four-cylinder engines. The wide rpm range for maximum torque helps the engine deliver better driving experience and performance. This turbocharged engine's power-boosting advantage comes from forcing greater airflow into the engine. Its pressurized charge packs more air into the cylinders, allowing them to process the air and fuel of a larger engine for momentary driving situations.

The 1.4L's turbocharger is integrated within the exhaust manifold, for reduced weight and greater packaging flexibility in smaller vehicles. The engine incorporates numerous mass-reducing features, including a cast iron block with a hollow frame structure, hollow-cast camshafts and a plastic intake manifold.

Type: Ecotec 1.4L VVT turbocharged
Displacement: 1364 cc (83 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal )
T ( transverse )
T
Compression ratio: 9.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts, double continuously variable cam phaser intake and exhaust (DCVCP)
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Aspern, Austria, and Bupyeong, South Korea
Valve lifters: Roller finger followers
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 72.5 x 82.6 mm
Bore Center: ( mm ) 78
Fuel system: Sequential multi-port fuel injectors with electronic throttle control
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Cruze 138 Hp (103 kW) @4900 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 4dr., 5dr. 138 Hp (103 kW) @4900 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Trax 138 Hp (103 kW) @4900 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Cruze with AT 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @1850 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Cruze with MT 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @2500 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 4dr., 5dr., AT 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @1850 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 4dr., 5dr., MT 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @2500 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Trax 148 lb-ft.(200 Nm) @2500 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed 6500 rpm
Emissions Summary: close-coupled and underfloor catalytic converters; 58x ignition system; returnless fuel rail; fast light-off O2 sensor
MATERIALS  
Block: Gray cast iron
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast iron
Crankshaft: reinforced, solid-cast
Camshaft: Hollow cast iron
Connecting rods: Forged steel
Additional features: Low-mass hollow-frame cast iron block
Chain-driven cams
Roller-finger camshaft followers
Piston-cooling oil jets and integrated oil cooler
Variable-flow oil pump.
Electronically controlled thermostat
Coil-on-plug ignition
Chevrolet Sonic (4 Dr.) Transmission
MH8-6T40
MZ4-M32-6
Chevrolet Sonic (5 Dr.) Transmission
MH8-6T40
MZ4-M32-6
Chevrolet Sonic RS (5 Dr.) Transmission
MR5-M32-6
Chevrolet Cruze Transmission
MH8-6T40
MF3-M32-6
MR5-M32-6
Chevrolet Trax Transmission
MH8-6T40
MHB-6T40 AWD
Buick Encore Transmission
MH8-6T40
MHB-6T40 AWD

Cylinder Block


The 1.8L's cylinder block is based on the proven hollow-frame concept. Gray cast iron provides an extremely durable foundation, optimized with a deep skirt that minimizes both wear and vibration. A structural aluminum oil pan further reduces noise, vibration and harshness, increasing the powertrain's rigidity and ensuring efficient heat transfer from the block. The 1.8L block supports greater loads than that used in previous generation engines, and it improves the overall rigidity of the engine/transmission assembly.

Less Reciprocating Mass


Like the pistons, other reciprocating components in the 1.8L were developed for an optimum mix of strength, balance and low weight. The result is less reciprocating mass inside the engine, increasing efficiency and enhancing the tactile feeling of performance as the engine builds revs.

The steel connecting rods incorporate a larger, forged I-beam cross section for added strength, without increasing weight.

Floating-Pin Pistons With Oil-Spray Cooling


The 1.8L pistons apply a floating-pin design. The wrist pins, which attach the piston to the connecting rod, "float" inside the rod bushing and pin bores in the piston barrel. Compared to a conventional fixed pin assembly, in which the connecting rod is fixed to the piston's wrist pin and the pin rotates in the pin bore, the floating pins reduce stress on the pin. They allow tighter pin to pin-bore tolerances and reduce noise generated as the piston moves through the cylinder. The benefit is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

The 1.8L's pistons also have oil-spray cooling. Each piston has its own individual directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and helping ensure durability. Additional oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing helps the Ecotec 1.8L deliver optimal performance and efficiency, with reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement), without sacrificing overall engine response or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions and because it manages valve overlap at optimum levels, it eliminates the need for an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system.

Hollow-Cast and Chain-Driven Camshafts


The pair of camshafts in the Ecotec 1.8L are hollow and lighter than conventional solid shafts. Along with helping reduce the overall weight of the engine, they lower the inertia of the valvetrain, allowing the engine to rev higher and more quickly.

Modified Variable Two Step Runner Length Intake Manifold


The lateral position of the throttle valve permits an optimum port formation of the single manifold runners in connection with a reduction of the losses in the fresh air section from the air filter to the intake valve.

The cross-section of the runners is constant over the entire length. The runner length in the power mode is 40 percent of the torque mode. In order to minimize the flow resistance at high speeds, a rotary sleeve was used instead of a flap-switching device. This solution guarantees the maximum possible cross-sectional area in the open position. Another advantage of the rotary sleeve design is that a high tightness can be reached in the closed position.

Improved Lubrication


To improve thermal management, and to ensure adequate oil supply for the cam phasers and piston jets, a liquid-to-liquid oil cooler is mounted on the exhaust side of the engine block. The cooler is compact and lightweight (less than three pounds), and provides a significant decrease in oil temperature without a decrease in average oil pressure. The oil cooler is cooled by the cooling system via a dedicated coolant passage in the engine block. While the design cools the oil in the normal operating temperature range, it also allows the oil to warm more quickly. That means optimal viscosity and friction reduction sooner after a cold start.

The oil pump's flow volume is matched to the engine. The pump is packaged in an assembly module with the water pump, timing belt cover and fastening points for accessories. This unique module reduces assembly time and improves build consistency.

Advanced Cooling System


The 1.8L features an electronically controlled thermostat in a lightweight, heat-resistant plastic housing. The electronic thermostat allows more precise temperature control than a conventional thermostat, and can be opened and closed by the engine control module (ECM), rather than at a default coolant temperature. The 1.8L's cooling circuit was developed using extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis. The result is appropriate engine cooling with the least amount of coolant volume—and weight.

Stainless Steel Exhaust Manifold with Close-Coupled Catalytic Converter


The stainless steel manifold is lighter than conventional cast iron. It reduces friction and smoothes the flow of air so exhaust gas can be rapidly expelled.

The close-coupled catalyst substantially lowers emissions during cold starts, or the brief period when an engine operates at its highest emissions level. Because the exhaust ports and exhaust manifold heat more rapidly than any part of an engine, moving a smaller catalytic converter closer to the manifold allows the catalyst to heat more quickly. So positioned, the catalyst achieves light-off—the temperature at which exhaust emissions are most efficiently oxidized--sooner.



Overview

As part of GM's small-displacement, power-dense four-cylinder engines, the Ecotec 1.8L is helping GM deliver more efficient yet fun-to-drive vehicles. It delivers an excellent balance of performance and efficiency. This compact inline four-cylinder engine combines competitive output, with sophisticated technologies such as dual continuous variable cam phasing (DCVCP), variable-geometry intake manifold, electronically controlled thermostat, engine oil cooler, with low maintenance, low emissions and outstanding fuel economy.

Type: 1.8L I-4 Fam1 Gen3 ( LUW )
Displacement: 1796cc ( 110 ci )
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) T
Compression ratio: 10.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual Overhead Camshafts (DVCVP)
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Bupyeoung, Korea or Toluca, Mexico
Valve lifters: Direct acting tappet with hydraulic lash adjuster
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 80.50 x 88.2 mm
Bore Center: ( mm ) 86
Bore Area: ( cm2 ) 203.61
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Cruze 138 hp ( 103 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 138 hp ( 103 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Cruze 125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Sonic 125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500 rpm
Emissions Summary: GM System 0 Engine Management System with E83 ECM
Federal: Tier 2 BIN 4
California: BIN 4 ( ULEV2 Qualified )
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast Grey Iron ( hollow frame )
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Fabricated Stainless Steel Maniverter 4-1
Crankshaft: Cast Nodular Iron
Camshaft: Cast Chilled Iron
Connecting rods: Forged Steel
Additional features: Double Continuous Variable Cam Phasing ( DCVCP )
Varible Two Step Runner Length Intake Manifold
Electronic Throttle Control
Electronic Controlled Cooling System
Hydraulic Tappets
Cylinder Selective Adaptive Knock Control
Engine Oil Cooler with Individual Piston Cooling Jets
Individual Coil on Plug High Energy Ignition
Extended Life Coolant
3 Layer Sheet Metal Cylinder Head Gasket
Belt Driven Camshaft
Long life (100,000-mile) spark plugs
Chevrolet Cruze Transmission
MH9-6T30
MZ0-M32-6
Chevrolet Sonic
MH9-6T30
M26-F17-5

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.5L's sand-cast cylinder block is a superior refinement of previous Ecotec engine block castings. It is dimensionally similar with previous variants, while providing excellent structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness.

The main bearing bulkheads, which support the crank bearing, as well as the cylinder bore walls, have been significantly strengthened to support increased engine loads. Also, refinements to the oil distribution system enable improved oil flow throughout the engine; and an expansion of the coolant jacket, along with the use of cast-in-place bore liners, allows more precise bore roundness and improves the block’s ability to dissipate heat.

Aluminum Pistons with Jet-Spray Cooling


The Ecotec 2.5L's pistons use lightweight aluminum pistons, for less reciprocating mass inside the engine that enhances efficiency, decreases vibration and bolsters the feeling of performance as rpm increases.

Each piston has its own directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and operational noise, while also bolstering the engine's durability.

The pistons are used with durable yet lightweight forged powdered metal connecting rods.

Cylinder Head


The Ecotec 2.5L has a 356T6 aluminum cylinder head that is cast with advanced semi-permanent mold technology. This provides excellent strength, reduced machining and optimal port flow. There is no need for heat treatment to the casting, which reduces residual stress and, consequently, enhances the engine's durability.

The cylinder head is designed specifically for direct injection into each combustion chamber. This is accomplished by positioning an injector under the intake port of each cylinder, so it protrudes into the chamber. The combustion chambers and ports are optimized for direct injection and high port flow.

The cylinder head includes premium valve seat, valve guide and valve materials. They were selected for minimum wear while operating in more severe conditions associated with direct injection. These premium materials, along with a hydraulic lash-adjusting lifter, ensure good durability without required lash adjustments.

The cylinder head also has integral cast oil passages that feed a set of internal oil control valves that activate cam phasers, enabling variable valve timing.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. This arrangement is integrated on the Ecotec 2.5L's lightweight aluminum cylinder head.

Both the intake and exhaust cams have hydraulically operated vane-type phasers that are managed by a solenoid and directed by the engine control module (ECM). The phasers turn the camshaft relative to the drive sprocket, allowing intake and exhaust valve timing to be adjusted independently.

Cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as conditions such as rpm and engine load vary. It allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption. Cam phasing also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions. Because it manages valve overlap at optimum levels, it eliminates the need for a separate exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture and it operates at lower temperature than conventional port injection. This allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port-injection fuel system. Direct injection also reduces emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

With direct injection, the higher compression ratio is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber. This reduces the charge temperature and lessens the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber and also feature multiple outlets for best injection control. The fuel system operates at pressure as high as 2,250 psi, compared to about 60 psi in conventional port injected engines.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the direct injection system in the Ecotec 2.5L. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank. The fuel delivery system features a high-pressure stainless steel feed line and a pressure-regulated fuel rail, without a conventional fuel return line from the engine to the tank. Fuel pressure varies from about 750 psi at idle to 2,250 psi at wide-open throttle.

Two-Stage Thermostat


The coolant thermostat’s operating point is electronically controlled to optimize engine temperatures during different phases of operation to enhance fuel efficiency. The engine control module monitors sensors and controls the thermostat based on mapping that takes into account the wide range of engine operating conditions, including temperature and load.

The thermostat opens partially at 194 degrees F (90 C) and fully at 221 degrees F (105 C).

Two-Stage, Variable-Displacement Oil Pump


The variable-flow oiling system helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, it is accomplished with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The engine’s variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine’s demand for oil. This prevents using energy to pump oil that is not required for proper engine operation.

The flow volume of the oil pump is designed to support the Ecotec 2.5L’s oiling requirements that include piston cooling and camshaft phasing. The cam phasers are supplied with oil through separate bores in the cylinder block and head. The recirculation of the increased amount of oil in the cylinder head is permitted through additional pre-cast oil return channels.

Relocated Balance Shafts


The 2.5L’s balance shafts – which are commonly used in four-cylinder engines to reduce vibration – are located in a cassette in the oil pan. It’s a move from previous Ecotec engines’ cylinder block-mounted shafts, which helps reduce noise through three key design features: a shorter, quieter drive chain, precision shaft-to-shaft reversing gears and light drag torque from driving the oil pump.

The short drive chain eliminates the previous long, winding “bushed” chain that included driving the water pump. It uses a premium inverted tooth chain design instead of a conventional roller-type chain, for quieter performance. The shaft-to-shaft reversing gear set allows the drive gears of the shafts to mesh directly, eliminating the need for a chain to “back drive” the second shaft, which must rotate in the opposite direction of the first shaft. The second shaft also drives the oil pump, providing a light drag torque to pre-load the reversing gear teeth for smooth, rattle-free and quiet operation.

In-Pan Oil Pump Assembly


Another significant change from previous Ecotec engines is the relocation of the oil pump assembly from the front of the crankshaft to within the oil pan, where it is driven by the second balance shaft. This reduces noise from the front cover area – an aluminum-intensive area that radiates noise – and provides a small drag torque to ensure quiet balance shaft gear operation. Also, the oil-sump location minimizes the potential for pump cavitation noise.

Camshaft Drive with Inverted-Tooth Chain


Like the drive chain for the balance shafts, the camshaft drive chain uses a premium, inverted-tooth design that is significantly quieter than a roller-type chain. As its name implies, an inverted-tooth chain has teeth on its links – two-pin rolling pivot joints – that essentially wrap around the gear sprocket to take up virtually all the tension. This allows for smoother meshing of the chain links to the sprocket teeth, the cause of most noise in chain drive systems. The chain-to-sprocket tooth impact is greatly reduced with the inverted-tooth design (also known as a silent chain drive), which virtually eliminates noise and enhances durability.

Two-Piece Oil Pan


When it came to the oil pan, engineers faced a conundrum: Aluminum provides stiffening structure to an engine, but it radiates noise. Stamped steel, on the other hand, radiates less noise, but doesn’t offer the structural benefits needed for a stiff powertrain assembly. Their solution was to combine the materials to create a unique, two-piece oil pan that features a stiff aluminum upper section to support the engine’s structure – maintaining the Ecotec engine’s signature full-perimeter transmission mounting surface – and a stamped steel lower section to provide greater overall sound performance.

Structural Camshaft Cover


As a cast-aluminum part mounted on the very top of the engine assembly, the camshaft cover can be a significant source of noise. That’s not the case with the 2.5L, thanks to a new, structural cover design that is stiffer and mounts more rigidly to the engine. It features increased ribbing and additional attachment bolts down the center, all of which increase the cover’s stiffness to help push the engine’s sound frequency above 2,000 hertz. It also enables excellent oil sealing for valvetrain oil control passages integrated within the cover.

Acoustic Intake Manifold Cover


Like many engines in the segment, the 2.5L uses a composite plastic lightweight intake manifold. But plastic conducts noise, so engineers wrapped the intake with a clamshell-like isolating cover. It has a sound-absorbing “blanket” on the inside that snugs against the intake to provide isolation, plus the cover has a visually clean outer layer, which works as a noise barrier.

Forged Steel Crankshaft


Engineers selected a forged steel crankshaft for the 2.5L because, along with its strength and durability, it is stiffer than a conventional cast iron crankshaft. That reduces noise and vibration at mid- and high-rpm levels, enhancing the engine’s smoothness.

Iron Main Bearing Cap Inserts


Iron inserts are cast into the 2.5L’s aluminum cylinder block bedplate, enhancing the structure at the main bearings, for greater smoothness and quietness. The bedplate provides stiffness to the bottom of the cylinder block and incorporates the main bearing caps – components used to secure the crankshaft within the block. The iron insert material ensures close main bearing tolerances over a wide range of engine operating temperatures, for quieter engine lower-end noise.

Isolated Fuel Rail


Although not new to the 2.5L, its isolated fuel rail nonetheless helps achieve overall quietness. Like the Ecotec 2.4L and Ecotec 2.0L turbo, the 2.5L features direct injection, which employs a very-high pressure fuel system, including an engine-mounted fuel pump and complementing fuel injectors that “fire” with very high pressures directly into the combustion chambers. This can be a source of noise. The fuel rail is a tube-like component that supplies gasoline to the injectors. To reduce the noise associated with this efficiency-enhancing system, the injectors are suspended and the fuel rail is attached to the cylinder head with rubber-isolated, compression-limiting mounting provisions.

Structural Front Cover


Similar to the structural camshaft cover described above, the 2.5L’s front cover, which covers both the camshaft drive system and balancer drive systems, was designed with extra ribbing and secured with extra fasteners – including a new row of attachments down the middle of the cover. Like the camshaft cover, the result is a stiffer, more rigid, quieter cover that contributes to lower engine noise.

Four-Wheel Drive Oil Pan


The oil filter for the LCV truck applications is now on the right hand side of the oil pan. The oil pan has specially integrated oil passages cast into the pan to transport oil to and from the oil filter. In addition, the oil pan features a deep rear sump allowing for clearance to the front axle.




Overview

GM’s versatile and technologically advanced Ecotec engine family expands with a new, larger 2.5L (LCV) variant. It is based on a new generation of large-displacement four-cylinder engines, which was designed for greater efficiency. GM proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis techniques were used to develop an all-new combustion system with a higher compression ratio.

The new combustion system features improved knock resistance and higher flowing intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head which help increase efficiency, power, and torque. The new Ecotec also has increased authority cam phasing to minimize any compromise between efficiency, performance, emissions, and drivability. Like the current generation of technically advanced Ecotec engines, the 2.5L also features a high pressure direct injection fuel system, dual overhead camshafts with continuously variable valve timing, electronic throttle control, and pistons with jet-spray oil cooling.

Type: 2.5L I-4
Displacement: 2457 cc (150 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal ) T ( transverse ) Either orientation
Compression ratio: 11.3:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Tonawanda, NY, Spring Hill, TN
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 88.00 x 101.00mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac ATS 202 hp (151 kW) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Colorado 200 hp (149 kW) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala 197 hp (147 kW) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Malibu (Fleet) 197 hp (147 kW) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
GMC Canyon 200 hp (149 kW) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Cadillac ATS 191 lb-ft. (259 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Colorado 191 lb-ft. (259 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Impala 191 lb-ft. (259 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Malibu (Fleet) 191 lb-ft. (259 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
GMC Canyon 191 lb-ft. (259 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6850 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converters (close coupled and underfloor)
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum 319T7
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum 356T6
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: High silicon molybdenum, cast nodular iron
Main bearing caps: Iron inserts cast into Bedplate
Crankshaft: Steel
Camshaft: Assembled steel
Connecting rods: Forged powdered metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Electric thermostat 105C targeted operating temperature - Colorado/Canyon/ATS only
2-stage variable displacement oil pump
Modular balance shaft system in oil pan
Precision sand cast block with cast-in-place iron liners
Spin on oil filter
Integrated N & V cover on intake manifold
Exhaust on left-hand side and intake on right-hand side
Cadillac ATS Sedan Transmission
MYA-6L45
GMC Canyon Transmission
MYB-6L50
N8D-FSO2506
Chevrolet Colorado Transmission
MYB-6L50
N8D-FSO2506

Cylinder Block


The 1.8L's cylinder block is based on the proven hollow-frame concept. Gray cast iron provides an extremely durable foundation, optimized with a deep skirt that minimizes both wear and vibration. A structural aluminum oil pan further reduces noise, vibration and harshness, increasing the powertrain's rigidity and ensuring efficient heat transfer from the block. The 1.8L block supports greater loads than that used in previous generation engines, and it improves the overall rigidity of the engine/transmission assembly.

Less Reciprocating Mass


Like the pistons, other reciprocating components in the 1.8L were developed for an optimum mix of strength, balance and low weight. The result is less reciprocating mass inside the engine, increasing efficiency and enhancing the tactile feeling of performance as the engine builds revs.

The steel connecting rods incorporate a larger, forged I-beam cross section for added strength, without increasing weight.

Floating-Pin Pistons With Oil-Spray Cooling


The 1.8L pistons apply a floating-pin design. The wrist pins, which attach the piston to the connecting rod, "float" inside the rod bushing and pin bores in the piston barrel. Compared to a conventional fixed pin assembly, in which the connecting rod is fixed to the piston's wrist pin and the pin rotates in the pin bore, the floating pins reduce stress on the pin. They allow tighter pin to pin-bore tolerances and reduce noise generated as the piston moves through the cylinder. The benefit is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

The 1.8L's pistons also have oil-spray cooling. Each piston has its own individual directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reducing friction and helping ensure durability. Additional oil on the cylinder walls and wristpin also dampens noise emanating from the pistons.

Variable Valve Timing


Variable valve timing helps the Ecotec 1.8L deliver optimal performance and efficiency, with reduced emissions. It allows linear delivery of torque, with near-peak levels over a broad rpm range and high specific output (horsepower per liter of displacement), without sacrificing overall engine response or driveability. It also provides another effective tool for controlling exhaust emissions and because it manages valve overlap at optimum levels, it eliminates the need for an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system.

Hollow-Cast and Chain-Driven Camshafts


The pair of camshafts in the Ecotec 1.8L are hollow and lighter than conventional solid shafts. Along with helping reduce the overall weight of the engine, they lower the inertia of the valvetrain, allowing the engine to rev higher and more quickly.

Modified Variable Two Step Runner Length Intake Manifold


The lateral position of the throttle valve permits an optimum port formation of the single manifold runners in connection with a reduction of the losses in the fresh air section from the air filter to the intake valve.

The cross-section of the runners is constant over the entire length. The runner length in the power mode is 40 percent of the torque mode. In order to minimize the flow resistance at high speeds, a rotary sleeve was used instead of a flap-switching device. This solution guarantees the maximum possible cross-sectional area in the open position. Another advantage of the rotary sleeve design is that a high tightness can be reached in the closed position.

Improved Lubrication


To improve thermal management, and to ensure adequate oil supply for the cam phasers and piston jets, a liquid-to-liquid oil cooler is mounted on the exhaust side of the engine block. The cooler is compact and lightweight (less than three pounds), and provides a significant decrease in oil temperature without a decrease in average oil pressure. The oil cooler is cooled by the cooling system via a dedicated coolant passage in the engine block. While the design cools the oil in the normal operating temperature range, it also allows the oil to warm more quickly. That means optimal viscosity and friction reduction sooner after a cold start.

The oil pump's flow volume is matched to the engine. The pump is packaged in an assembly module with the water pump, timing belt cover and fastening points for accessories. This unique module reduces assembly time and improves build consistency.

Advanced Cooling System


The 1.8L features an electronically controlled thermostat in a lightweight, heat-resistant plastic housing. The electronic thermostat allows more precise temperature control than a conventional thermostat, and can be opened and closed by the engine control module (ECM), rather than at a default coolant temperature. The 1.8L's cooling circuit was developed using extensive Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis. The result is appropriate engine cooling with the least amount of coolant volume—and weight.

Stainless Steel Exhaust Manifold with Close-Coupled Catalytic Converter


The stainless steel manifold is lighter than conventional cast iron. It reduces friction and smoothes the flow of air so exhaust gas can be rapidly expelled.

The close-coupled catalyst substantially lowers emissions during cold starts, or the brief period when an engine operates at its highest emissions level. Because the exhaust ports and exhaust manifold heat more rapidly than any part of an engine, moving a smaller catalytic converter closer to the manifold allows the catalyst to heat more quickly. So positioned, the catalyst achieves light-off—the temperature at which exhaust emissions are most efficiently oxidized--sooner.

Secondary Air Injection


A Secondary Air Injection (SAI) system helps meet SULEV emissions requirements in certain states. At engine start-up, during open loop operation, where the catalytic converter has not reached an operating temperature, the secondary air injection pump, which is designed to meet exact flow requirements of the system, provides pressurized fresh air into the pipes/hoses, through the open shutoff and check valves and into the exhaust ports of the cylinder head. The extra air accelerates the catalyst operation, helping it to reach operating temperature faster which aids in the reduction of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions during cold starts.



Overview

As part of GM's small-displacement, power-dense four-cylinder engines, the Ecotec 1.8L is helping GM deliver more efficient yet fun-to-drive vehicles. It delivers an excellent balance of performance and efficiency. This compact inline four-cylinder engine combines competitive output, with sophisticated technologies such as dual continuous variable cam phasing (DCVCP), variable-geometry intake manifold, electronically controlled thermostat, engine oil cooler, with low maintenance, low emissions and outstanding fuel economy.

The LWE-code version of the LUW adds Secondary Air Injection, which adds fresh air to the exhaust stream for a more complete combustion of the exhaust gases – to enable PZEV (partial zero-emissions vehicle) status in California and Northeast states that require enhanced emissions.

2016 Ecotec 1.8L I-4 VVT ( LWE )  
Type: 1.8L I-4 Fam1 Gen3 ( LWE )
Displacement: 1796cc ( 110 ci )
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal )
T ( transverse )
T
Compression ratio: 10.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual Overhead Camshafts
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Toluca, Mexico, Bupyeong, South Korea and Szentgotthard, Hungary
Valve lifters: Direct acting tappet with hydraulic lash adjuster
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 80.50 x 88.2 mm
Bore Center: ( mm ) 86
Bore Area: ( cm2 ) 203.61
Fuel system: Sequential fuel injection
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Sonic 138 hp ( 103 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Cruze 138 hp ( 103 kW ) @ 6300 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Sonic 125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Cruze 125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified125 lb.-ft. ( 170 Nm ) @ 3800 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500 rpm
Emissions Summary: GM System 1 Engine Management System with E78 ECM
Federal: Tier 2 BIN 3
California: PZEV
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast Grey Iron ( hollow frame )
Cylinder head: Cast Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Fabricated Stainless Steel Maniverter 4-1
Crankshaft: Cast Nodular Iron
Camshaft: Cast Chilled Iron
Connecting rods: Forged Steel
Additional features: Dual Continuous Variable Cam Phasing ( DCVCP )
Varible Runner Length Intake Manifold
Electronic Throttle Control
Electric Thermostat
Hydraulic Tappets
Cylinder Selective Adaptive Knock Control
Engine Oil Cooler with Individual Piston Cooling Jets
Individual Coil on Plug High Energy Ignition
Extended Life Coolant
3 Layer Sheet Metal Cylinder Head Gasket
Belt Driven Camshaft
Long life (100,000-mile) Iridum spark plugs
Chevrolet Cruze Transmission
MH9-6T30
MZ0-M32-6
Chevrolet Sonic (4 Dr., 5 Dr.)
MH9-6T30
M26-F17-5

Engine Block


The Ecotec 2.0L turbo sand-cast cylinder block is a superior refinement of previous Ecotec engine block castings. It is dimensionally similar with previous Ecotec turbo block variants, while providing improved structural support, as well as enabling greater control of noise, vibration and harshness.

The main bearing bulkheads, which support the crank bearings, as well as the cylinder bore walls have been significantly strengthened to support increased engine loads. Refinements to the oil distribution system enable improved oil flow throughout the engine and an expansion of the coolant jacket, along with the use of cast-in-place bore liners, allows more precise bore roundness and improves the block’s ability to dissipate heat.

Rotating Assembly


The crankshaft is made of drop forged steel with induction heat-treated fillets and cross-drilled chamfered oil passages for racing-grade lubrication characteristics. Forged powdered metal connecting rods incorporate a larger, forged I-beam cross section for added strength in this turbocharged application.

The pistons in the 2.0L turbo are lightweight cast aluminum, which reduces reciprocating mass inside the engine. This enhances efficiency and the feeling of performance as the rpm increases. The tops of the pistons have a dish shape that deflects injected fuel.

Each piston has its own directed jet that sprays oil toward its skirt, coating its underside and the cylinder wall with an additional layer of lubricant. The extra lubrication cools the pistons, reduces both friction and operational noise and bolsters the engine's durability.

Rotocast Aluminum Cylinder Head with Sodium Filled Exhaust Valves


The Ecotec 2.0L turbo's A356T6 aluminum cylinder head is cast using a Rotocast process for high strength, reduced machining and improved port flow. (A similar method is used in the casting of the supercharged Corvette ZR1’s LS9 cylinder heads.) The head is also designed specifically for direct injection. In other Ecotec engines, the fuel injectors are mounted in the intake ports but the 2.0L turbo head has unique injector mounting locations below the ports. Apart from injector installation, the head has conventional port and combustion chamber designs, both are optimized for direct injection and high boost pressure.

The head uses stainless steel intake valves that are nitrided for improved durability and undercut to improve flow and reduce weight. The exhaust valves have sodium-filled stems that promote valve cooling. At normal engine operating temperatures, the sodium inside the valve stem fuses and becomes liquid. The liquid sodium improves conductivity, promoting heat transfer away from the valve face and valve guide to the cooler end of the stem, where it more readily dissipates. This helps maintain a lower, more uniform valve temperature, reducing wear on the valve guide for better alignment and a consistent seal between the valve seat and valve face over the life of the engine.

Performance was the priority with the Ecotec 2.0L turbo, so the exhaust manifold mounted to the cylinder head is made of cast stainless steel. It is extremely durable and delivers exceptional airflow qualities.

DOHC with Continuously Variable Valve Timing


Overhead cams are the most direct, efficient means of operating the valves, while four valves per cylinder increase airflow in and out of the engine. This arrangement is integrated on the Ecotec 2.0L's lightweight aluminum cylinder head.

Continuously variable valve timing optimizes the engine's turbocharging system by adjusting valve timing at lower rpm for improved turbo response and greater torque delivery. Both the intake and exhaust cams have hydraulically operated vane-type phasers that are managed by a solenoid and directed by the engine control module (ECM). The phasers turn the camshaft relative to the drive sprocket, allowing intake and exhaust valve timing to be adjusted independently.

Cam phasing changes the timing of valve operation as conditions such as rpm and engine load vary. It allows an outstanding balance of smooth torque delivery over a broad rpm range, high specific output and good specific fuel consumption.

Direct Injection


Direct injection moves the point where fuel feeds into an engine closer to the point where it ignites, enabling greater combustion efficiency. It fosters a more complete burn of the fuel in the air-fuel mixture, and operates at a lower temperature than conventional port injection. This allows the mixture to be leaner (less fuel and more air), so less fuel is required to produce the equivalent horsepower of a conventional, port-injection fuel system. Direct injection also delivers reduced emissions, particularly cold-start emissions, by about 25 percent.

The higher compression ratio with direct injection is possible because of a cooling effect as the injected fuel vaporizes in the combustion chamber, which reduces the charge temperature to lessen the likelihood of spark knock. The direct injection fuel injectors have been developed to withstand the greater heat and pressure inside the combustion chamber, and feature multiple outlets for best injection control. The fuel system operates at pressure as high as 2,250 psi, compared to about 60 psi in conventional port-injected engines.

Cam-Driven High-Pressure Fuel Pump


A high-pressure, cam-driven pump provides the fuel pressure required of the Ecotec 2.0L turbo’s direct injection system. The engine-mounted fuel pump is augmented by a conventional electrically operated supply pump in the fuel tank. The fuel delivery system features a high-pressure stainless steel feed line and a pressure-regulated fuel rail without a conventional fuel return line from the engine to the tank. Fuel pressure varies from about 750 psi at idle to 2,250 psi at wide-open throttle.

Two-Stage, Variable-Displacement Oil Pump


The variable-flow oiling system helps maximize fuel efficiency. Rather than the linear operation of a conventional fixed-flow pump, it is accomplished with a crankshaft-driven oil pump that matches the oil supply to the engine load. The engine’s variable-flow pump changes its capacity based on the engine’s demand for oil. This prevents using energy to pump oil that is not required for proper engine operation.

An engine oil cooler helps maintain optimum oil temperatures. It has a heat exchanger incorporated into the oil filter housing. Coolant to the heat exchanger is provided by the engine’s coolant circuit. The design optimizes oil cooling with a minimal pressure loss. During the cold starting, the system also enables faster heating of the engine oil for an earlier reduction of internal engine friction.

Twin-Scroll Turbocharger


An advanced, electronically controlled turbocharger with a unique twin-scroll design is used to increase power in the Ecotec 2.0L turbo. Each of two scrolls on the turbine is fed by a separate exhaust passage – one from cylinders one and four, the other from cylinders two and three – to virtually eliminates turbo lag at low engine speeds, giving the engine immediate throttle response associated with a naturally aspirated high-performance engine.

The turbocharger generates maximum boost of about 20 psi. Because direct injection cools the intake process compared to port injection, it allows the Ecotec 2.0L turbo to safely operate at higher boost and a relatively higher compression (9.2:1) than a conventional turbo engine, increasing both output and efficiency.

Air-to-Air Intercooler


An intake charge cooler enhances the power-increasing benefits of the turbocharging system. The Ecotec 2.0L turbo’s air-to-air intercooler draws fresh air through a heat exchanger – much like a radiator – to reduce the temperature of compressed air that’s forced through the intake system by the turbocharger. Inlet temperature is reduced as much as 212 degrees F. Cooler air is denser, which means more oxygen is packed in the cylinders for optimal combustion and, consequently, greater power.

Cam-Driven Vacuum Pump


A cam-driven vacuum pump ensures the availability of vacuum under all conditions, especially under boost, when the engine produces the opposite of vacuum. The pump is mounted at the rear of the cylinder head and is driven by the exhaust camshaft via a flexible coupling.




Overview

Performance from GM’s Ecotec family of engines continues to advance with the 2.0L Turbo – known by its “LTG” engine code – It is based on a generation of large-displacement four-cylinder engines which is designed for greater efficiency.

The turbocharger generates up to 20 pounds of boost and its twin-scroll design helps optimize the usable power from the engine, virtually eliminating turbo lag and helping deliver a broad power band. It also gives the engine the rapid throttle responsiveness associated with a higher-displacement naturally aspirated high-performance engine. Electronically controlled supporting components, including the wastegate and bypass, help optimize performance and efficiency.

2016 Ecotec 2.0L I-4 VVT Turbo ( LTG )  
Type: 2.0L I-4
Displacement: 1998 cc (122 ci)
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal )
T ( transverse )
L & T
Compression ratio: 9.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Tonawanda, NY and Springhill, TN
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 86.00 x 86.00 mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Premium recommended
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Buick Regal, Regal GS 259 hp (193 kW) @ 5300 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Envision 252 hp (188 kW) @ 5500 rpm Estimate
Cadillac ATS 272 hp (203 kW) @ 5500 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Sedan 268 hp (200 kW) @ 5500 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CT6 265 hp (198 kW) @ 5500 rpm Estimate
Chevrolet Camaro 275 hp (205 kW) @ 5500 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Malibu 259 hp (193 kW) @ 5300 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Buick Regal, Regal GS 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 3000 - 4000 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Envision 260 lb-ft (353 Nm) @ 2000 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac ATS 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 3000 - 4500 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Sedan 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 3000 - 4500 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CT6 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 3000 - 4300 rpm Estimate
Chevrolet Camaro 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 3000 - 4500 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Malibu 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) @ 3000 - 5000 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 7000 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converters (close coupled and underfloor)
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS  
Block: Cast aluminum 319T7
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum 356T6 Rotocast
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast stainless steel
Main bearing caps: Iron inserts cast into Bedplate
Crankshaft: Steel
Camshaft: Assembled steel
Connecting rods: Forged powdered metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Belt Alternator Starter system capable
2-stage variable displacement oil pump
Modular balance shaft system in oil pan
Precision sand cast block with cast-in-place iron liners
Spin on oil filter
Integrated N&V cover on intake manifold
Integrated front engine mount for transverse installation
Exhaust on left-hand side and intake on right-hand side
Dual-scroll turbocharger
Electronic bypass valve
Automatic Start/Stop Capability
Buick Regal, Regal GS Transmission
M7U-6T70 AWD-CU
Buick Regal, Regal GS Transmission
M7W-6T70-CU
Buick Regal GS Transmission
MR6-FWD-F40-6-FWD
Cadillac CTS Sedan Transmission
MYA-6L45
Cadillac ATS Sedan Transmission
M3L-TR3160
MYA-6L45
Chevrolet Malibu Transmission
M7W-6T70-CU

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly



High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain



E85 Flex-Fuel Capability



Advanced Electronic Throttle Control



58X Ignition System






Overview

The 3.6L Twin-Turbo V-6 – used in the Cadillac ATS-V – is the most power-dense six-cylinder engine in the midsize luxury segment and is the most powerful V-6 ever from General Motors. The architecture of the 3.6L Twin-Turbo is based on the naturally aspirated 3.6L V-6 known by the LFX engine code, but with almost entirely all-new components.

A pair of smaller turbochargers and an efficient charge air cooler help provide more immediate power delivery. Additionally, approximately 90 percent of the 3.6L Twin-Turbo’s peak torque is available from 2,500 rpm to 6,000 rpm, giving the engine a broad torque curve that drivers feel as strong, willing power in almost all driving conditions.

2016 3.6L V6 VVT DI Twin Turbo (LF4 )
Type: 3.6L V6 Turbo
Displacement: 3564 cc ( 217 ci )
Engine Orientation: L= Longitudinal T=Transverse L
Compression ratio: 10.2:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site/s: Ramos Arizpe
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6
Bore x stroke: 94.0 x 85.6 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 103
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 416.37
Fuel system: DI
Fuel Type: Premium required
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
BIN 4
Spilt-Volume-Common-Can catalytic converters
Positive crankcase ventilation
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight 190 / 418
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw ) @ rpm
Cadillac ATS-V 464 hp (346 kw) @ 5850 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm ) @ rpm
Cadillac ATS-V 445 lb-ft (603 Nm) @ 3500 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS:
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Aluminum (356)
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( Lower ), Aluminum ( Upper )
Main bearing caps: Nodular iron
Crankshaft: Rolled steel forging
Camshaft: Austempered ductile iron
Connecting rods: Powdered metal
Additional features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing
Twin turbochargers w/ titanium aluminide turbine wheels
Titanium connecting rods
Dual vacuum actuated wastegates
Cam driven mechanical vacuum pump
Dual mass air flow sensors
Humidity sensor
Integrated charge air cooler
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Secondary throat cut inlet ports
Direct injection fuel system
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Electronic Throttle Control w/ integrated Cruise Control
Structural front cover with damper plates removed
Iridium center electrode / platinum side wire tip spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life EPDM accessory drive belt
7.7mm IT chain system for all HFV6 applications
Coil-on-plug ignition
Structural cast-aluminum oil pan with steel baffles
GM Oil Life System
5W30 Dexos oil
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The L20 4.8L provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L20 quiet and smooth. To further reduce wear, the pistons are coated with a polymer material that limits bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston's up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston's movement. The result for the customer is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 4.8L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. The high-performance cylinder heads support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The L20 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.





Overview

The all-new 3.6L V-6 engine debuts in the 2016 model year, ushering in new benchmarks for efficiency, refinement and durability. The clean-sheet engine redesign represents the fourth generation of GM’s acclaimed DOHC V-6 engine family and incorporates new features, including Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation) and stop/start technology to enhance fuel economy. The new 3.6L also advances performance- and fuel economy-optimizing technologies introduced on previous generations, including direct injection and continuously variable valve timing.

2016 3.6L Gen2 V6 VVT DI (LGX )
Type: 3.6L V6
Displacement: 3649 cc ( 222 cid )
Engine Orientation: L
Compression ratio: 11.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Romulus, MI
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6
Bore x Stroke: 95.0 x 85.8 mm
Bore Center: 106
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 425.21
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Regular Unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw ) @ rpm
Cadillac ATS Sedan, Coupe 335 hp (250kW) @ 6800 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Sedan 335 hp (250kW) @ 6800 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CT6 335 hp (250kW) @ 6800 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Camaro 335 hp (250kW) @ 6800 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm ) @ rpm
Cadillac ATS Sedan, Coupe 285 lb-ft. (386Nm) @ 5300 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CTS Sedan 285 lb-ft. (386Nm) @ 5300 rpm SAE Certified
Cadillac CT6 284 lb-ft. (385Nm) @ 5300 rpm SAE Certified
Chevrolet Camaro 284 lb-ft. (385Nm) @ 5300 rpm SAE Certified
Max engine speed 7200rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight depending on application 166-167 / 365-367 ( estimate )
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Internal exhaust gas recirculation ( EGR )
Dual close coupled converters
2 stage internal positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum ( 356 semi permanent mold )
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( 319 Lower ), Composite ( Upper )
Main bearing caps: Sintered steel
Crankshaft: Hardened Forged steel (1538 MV )
Camshaft: Cast iron
Connecting rods: Sinter forged steel
Additional Features: Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing with mid park intake phaser
Active Fuel Management (Cylinder Deactivation) 4 cylinder mode
Variable displacement oil pump
Targeted cooling
Roller chain timing drive with rubber cushioned tight side cam sprockets
Two piece Structural cast-aluminum upper/stamped steel lower oil pan with composite deflector
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Direct injection fuel system
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Electronic Throttle Control w/ integrated Cruise Control
Engine driven mechanical vacuum pump
Iridium center electrode / platinum side wire tip spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life EPDM accessory drive belt
Coil-on-plug ignition
GM Oil Life System
5W30 Dexos oil
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The L20 4.8L provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L20 quiet and smooth. To further reduce wear, the pistons are coated with a polymer material that limits bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston's up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston's movement. The result for the customer is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 4.8L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. The high-performance cylinder heads support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The L20 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.




Overview

The all-new 3.0L V-6 Twin Turbo is designed to achieve segment-leading thresholds of refinement and specific output. It is the only six-cylinder engine to combine turbocharging with cylinder deactivation and stop/start technologies to conserve fuel by an estimated 6 percent, over a comparable combination without the technologies. The new 3.0L Twin Turbo features turbochargers with lightweight, low-inertia titanium-aluminide turbine wheels and an efficient, patented low-volume charge-air cooler, which contribute to optimal boost production and more immediate power delivery.

2016 3.0L Twin Turbo Gen2 V6 (LGW )
Type: 3.0L Twin Turbocharged V6
Displacement: 2990 cc ( 182 cid )
Engine Orientation: L
Compression ratio: 9.8:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Romulus, MI
Valve lifters: Roller follower with hydraulic lash adjusters
Firing order: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6
Bore x Stroke: 86.0 x 85.8 mm
Bore Center ( mm ) 106
Bore Area ( cm2 ) ( total engine bore area ) 348.5
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Premium unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Cadillac CT6 404 hp (301 kW) @ 5700 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Cadillac CT6 400 lb-ft. (542 Nm) @ 2500 - 5100 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500 rpm
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) engine plant as shipped weight depending on application 198 kg / 436 lbs ( estimate )
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Internal exhaust gas recirculation
Dual Split-Volume-Common-Can close coupled converters
2 stage internal positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Sand cast aluminum (319 T7) with cast in iron bore liners
Cylinder head: Al 356-T6, Rotocast casting process
Intake manifold: Aluminum ( 319 Lower ), Composite ( Upper ), Integrated Charge Air Cooler
Main bearing caps: Nodular Iron
Crankshaft: Rolled steel forging 44MnSiV6 material
Camshaft: Cast iron
Connecting rods: Sinter forged steel
Additional features: Twin turbochargers with titanium-aluminide turbine wheels, vacuum actuated wastegate control, water-air intercooler
Four-cam continuously variable cam phasing with mid park intake phaser
Active Fuel Management (Cylinder Deactivation) 4 cylinder mode
Variable displacement oil pump
Targeted cooling
Roller chain timing drive with rubber cushioned tight side cam sprockets
Two piece Structural cast-aluminum upper/stamped steel lower oil pan with composite deflector
Pressure-actuated piston cooling jets
Torque-based engine management system
Direct injection fuel system
High-pressure, engine-driven fuel pump with stainless steel fuel rails
Electronic Throttle Control w/ integrated Cruise Control
Engine driven mechanical vacuum pump
Iridium center electrode / platinum side wire tip spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Extended life EPDM accessory drive belt
Coil-on-plug ignition
GM Oil Life System
5W30 Dexos oil
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The L20 4.8L provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L20 quiet and smooth. To further reduce wear, the pistons are coated with a polymer material that limits bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston's up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston's movement. The result for the customer is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 4.8L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. The high-performance cylinder heads support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The L20 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.




Overview

The 2016 Colorado and Canyon towing, payload and fuel economy are further accentuated by the introduction of the 2.8L Duramax Turbo-Diesel 4-cylinder engine. Derived from the international 2.8L diesel engine and refined for the North American market, the 2.8L Duramax Turbo-Diesel delivers durability and reliability affirmed by extensive testing and real world customer miles.

2016 XLDE 2.8L Turbo Diesel (LWN)
Combustion System: Compression Ignition
Induction System: Variable Geometry Turbocharger
Displacement: 2776 cc (169 ci)
Engine Orientation: Longitudinal
Compression ratio: 16.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual Overhead Camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Valves Timing Fixed
Assembly site: Rayong, Thailand
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 94.00 x 100.00mm
Maximum Engine Speed: Max Power @ 3400 rpm / Mechanical Limit @ 5000 rpm
Fuel System: Direct Injection Common Rail
Fuel type: Diesel / B20 Bio Diesel Compatible
Engine Mass (kg/lbs) 236 kg (520 lb)
Emissions Controls Close Coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
Selective Catalytic Reduction with Urea Injection
Diesel Particulate Filter
Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
Positive Crankcase Ventilation
Emissions Standards Tier 2 BIN 5 / ULEV 125
Application: Horsepower: hp (kw)
Chevrolet Colorado 181 Hp (135 kW) @ 3400 rpm SAE Certified
GMC Canyon 181 Hp (135 kW) @3400 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Colorado 369 lb-ft (500 Nm) @ 2000 rpm SAE Certified
GMC Canyon 369 lb-ft (500 Nm) @ 2000 rpm SAE Certified
MATERIALS
Block: Grey Cast Iron
Cylinder head: Aluminum
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Cast Iron
Main bearing caps: Powder Metal
Crankshaft: Forged Steel
Camshaft: Powdered Metal/Sintered Lobes
Connecting rods: Forged Steel
Additional features: Composite Cam Cover
Poly-V Accessory Drive Belt
2000 bar Solenoid Fuel Injectors
Water cooled Turbocharger with Variable Geometry Nozzle
Oil Level Protection Switch
Ceramic Glow Plugs
EGR Cooling System with Integrated By-pass
Internal GM ECU and Software
Oil Filter Housing with Integrated Oil Cooler
Dexos 2 Engine Oil
Enhanced Base Engine NVH Acoustic Package
Pressure Regulating Valve for Active Return Fuel Heating
Air Mass Controlled in Closed Loop via Electonic Throttle Valve
Engine Mounted Electro-Viscous Cooling Fan
Balance Shaft Unit with Integrated Oil Pump
Positive Crankcase Ventilation Heater
Block Mounted 110V Coolant Heater
High Performance / Low Temperature Timing Belt
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The L20 4.8L provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L20 quiet and smooth. To further reduce wear, the pistons are coated with a polymer material that limits bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston's up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston's movement. The result for the customer is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 4.8L's cylinder heads feature "cathedral"-shaped intake ports that promote exceptional airflow. The high-performance cylinder heads support great airflow at higher rpm for a broader horsepower band, along with strong, low-rpm torque.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The L20 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.




Overview

General Motors has developed an all-new Ecotec 1.5L range extender engine for use in the next generation Voltec propulsion system. The engine is part of GM’s new, global family of Ecotec small-displacement engines. Engineered to deliver strong performance with excellent efficiency, the new Ecotec engine family represents a clean-sheet design and engineering process, leveraging the diverse experience of GM’s global resources.

The 1.5L L3A engine features an aluminum cylinder block and head, which help reduce the vehicle’s overall mass to enhance performance and efficiency, while technologies such as central direct fuel injection, continuously variable valve timing and variable intake manifold airflow complement the efficiency goals with broad power bands – for an optimal balance of strong performance and low fuel consumption.

2016 Ecotec 1.5L I-4 VVT ( L3A )
Type: 1.5L I-4
Displacement: 1490 cc
Engine Orientation: Transverse
Compression ratio: 12.5:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Toluca Mexico
Flint MI
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 74.00 x 86.6 mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Regular Unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Volt 101 hp (75 kW) @ 5600 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Volt 103 lb.-ft (140 Nm) @ 4300 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6000 RPM
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converters (SVCC - Split Volume Common Can )
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum 380 T5
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum 356 T7
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Integrated into cylinder head
Main bearing caps: Iron inserts cast into Bedplate
Crankshaft: Steel
Camshaft: Assembled steel
Connecting rods: Forged powdered metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Low friction, PVD coated piston rings
Electric thermostat
2-stage variable displacement oil pump
Externally Cooled EGR
Spin on oil filter
Integrated N&V cover on intake manifold
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The L20 4.8L provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L20 quiet and smooth. To further reduce wear, the pistons are coated with a polymer material that limits bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston's up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston's movement. The result for the customer is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 1.4L turbo LE2 engine features an aluminum cylinder block and head, which help reduce the vehicle’s overall mass to enhance performance and efficiency, while technologies such as central direct fuel injection and continuously variable valve timing complement the efficiency goals with broad power bands – for an optimal balance of strong performance and low fuel consumption.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The L20 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.




Overview

The all-new Ecotec 1.4L engine (LV7) is part of GM’s new, global family of Ecotec small-displacement engines. Engineered to deliver strong performance with excellent efficiency, the new Ecotec engine family represents a clean-sheet design and engineering process, leveraging the diverse experience of GM’s global resources.

The 1.4L engine (LV7) features an aluminum cylinder block and head, which help reduce the vehicle’s overall mass to enhance performance and efficiency, while technologies such as central direct fuel injection, continuously variable valve timing and variable intake manifold airflow complement the efficiency goals with broad power bands – for an optimal balance of strong performance and low fuel consumption.

2016 Ecotec 1.4L I-4 VVT ( LV7 )
Type: 1.4L I-4
Displacement: 1399 cc
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal )
T ( transverse )
Transverse
Compression ratio: 10.6:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Changwon Korea
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 74.00 x 81.30mm
Fuel system: PFI
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Spark 98 hp (73 Kw) @ 6200 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Spark 94 lb.-ft (128 Nm) @ 4400 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converters (close coupled and underfloor)
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum 380 T5
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum 356 T7
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Integrated into the cylinder head
Main bearing caps: Iron inserts cast into Bedplate
Crankshaft: Hollow Cast Iron
Camshaft: Assembled steel
Connecting rods: Forged powdered metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
2-stage variable displacement oil pump
Spin on oil filter
Low friction, PVD piston rings
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The all-new Ecotec 1.5L turbocharged engine (LFV) is part of GM’s new, global family of Ecotec small-displacement engines. Engineered to deliver strong performance with excellent efficiency, the new Ecotec engine family represents a clean-sheet design and engineering process, leveraging the diverse experience of GM’s global resources.

The 1.5L turbo LFV engine features an aluminum cylinder block and head, which help reduce the vehicle’s overall mass to enhance performance and efficiency, while technologies such as central direct fuel injection, continuously variable valve timing and variable intake manifold airflow complement the efficiency goals with broad power bands – for an optimal balance of strong performance and low fuel consumption.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 1.4L turbo LE2 engine features an aluminum cylinder block and head, which help reduce the vehicle’s overall mass to enhance performance and efficiency, while technologies such as central direct fuel injection and continuously variable valve timing complement the efficiency goals with broad power bands – for an optimal balance of strong performance and low fuel consumption.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The L20 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.




Overview

The all-new Ecotec 1.5L turbocharged engine (LFV) is part of GM’s new, global family of Ecotec small-displacement engines. Engineered to deliver strong performance with excellent efficiency, the new Ecotec engine family represents a clean-sheet design and engineering process, leveraging the diverse experience of GM’s global resources.

The 1.5L turbo LFV engine features an aluminum cylinder block and head, which help reduce the vehicle’s overall mass to enhance performance and efficiency, while technologies such as central direct fuel injection, continuously variable valve timing and variable intake manifold airflow complement the efficiency goals with broad power bands – for an optimal balance of strong performance and low fuel consumption.

Type: 1.5L I-4
Displacement: 1490 cc
Engine Orientation: Transverse
Compression ratio: 10.0:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder 4
Assembly site: Toluca, Mexico, Springhill, TN
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x Stroke: 74.00 x 86.6
Fuel system: DI
Fuel type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kw )
Chevrolet Malibu 163 hp (122 kW) @ 5700 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Malibu 184 lb.-ft (250 Nm) @ 2500 - 3000 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converters (close coupled and underfloor)
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum 380 T5
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum 356 T7
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Integrated into cylinder head
Main bearing caps: Iron inserts cast into Bedplate
Crankshaft: Steel
Camshaft: Assembled steel
Connecting rods: Forged powdered metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
Low friction, PVD coated piston rings
2-stage variable displacement oil pump
Spin on oil filter
Integrated N & V cover on intake manifold
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Cylinder Block and Rotating Assembly


The L20 4.8L provides a light, rigid foundation for an impressively smooth engine. Its deep-skirt design helps maximize strength and minimize vibration. Along with the rigid block, the engine's rotating assembly was designed for optimal strength and duration complemented by features designed to make the L20 quiet and smooth. To further reduce wear, the pistons are coated with a polymer material that limits bore scuffing, or abrasion of the cylinder wall over time from the piston's up-down motion. The polymer coating also dampens noise generated by the piston's movement. The result for the customer is less engine wear, improved durability and quieter operation.

High-Flow Cylinder Heads and Valvetrain


The 1.4L turbo LE2 engine features an aluminum cylinder block and head, which help reduce the vehicle’s overall mass to enhance performance and efficiency, while technologies such as central direct fuel injection and continuously variable valve timing complement the efficiency goals with broad power bands – for an optimal balance of strong performance and low fuel consumption.

E85 Flex-Fuel Capability


E85 is a clean-burning, domestically produced alternative fuel composed of 85 percent ethanol alcohol and 15 percent gasoline. Ethanol is renewable and produces fewer greenhouse gases in the combustion process. It can be produced from various feed stocks, including corn and wheat stalks, forestry and agricultural waste and even municipal waste.

Advanced Electronic Throttle Control


With ETC, there is no mechanical link between the accelerator pedal and the throttle body. A sensor at the pedal measures pedal angle and sends a signal to the engine control module (ECM), which in turn directs an electric motor to open the throttle at the appropriate rate and angle. The ETC system can deliver outstanding throttle response and greater reliability than a mechanical connection.

58X Ignition System


The L20 has an advanced 58X crankshaft position encoder to ensure that ignition timing is accurate throughout its operating range. The new 58X crankshaft ring and sensor provide more immediate, accurate information on the crankshaft's position during rotation. This allows the engine control module to adjust ignition timing with greater precision, which optimizes performance and economy. Engine starting is also more consistent in all operating conditions.




Overview

The all-new Ecotec 1.4L turbocharged engine (LE2) is part of GM’s new, global family of Ecotec small-displacement engines. Engineered to deliver strong performance with excellent efficiency, the new Ecotec engine family represents a clean-sheet design and engineering process, leveraging the diverse experience of GM’s global resources.

The 1.4L turbo LE2 engine features an aluminum cylinder block and head, which help reduce the vehicle’s overall mass to enhance performance and efficiency, while technologies such as central direct fuel injection, continuously variable valve timing and variable intake manifold airflow complement the efficiency goals with broad power bands – for an optimal balance of strong performance and low fuel consumption.

Type: 1.4L I-4
Displacement: 1399 cc
Engine Orientation: L ( longitudinal )
T ( transverse )
Transverse
Compression ratio: 10.0:1
Valve configuration: Dual overhead camshafts
Valves per cylinder: 4
Assembly site: Toluca, Mexico, Flint, MI
Valve lifters: Hydraulic roller finger follower
Firing order: 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Bore x stroke: 74.00 x 81.30mm
Fuel system: DI
Fuel Type: Regular unleaded
Applications: Horsepower: hp ( kW )
Chevrolet Cruze 153 hp (114 kW) @ 5600 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Encore 153 hp (114 kW) @ 5600 rpm SAE Certified
Applications: Torque: lb-ft. ( Nm )
Chevrolet Cruze 177 lb.ft (240 Nm) @ 2000 - 4000 rpm SAE Certified
Buick Encore 177 lb.ft (240 Nm) @ 2000 - 4000 rpm SAE Certified
Maximum Engine Speed: 6500 rpm
Emissions controls: Evaporative system
Catalytic converters (close coupled and underfloor)
Positive crankcase ventilation
MATERIALS
Block: Cast aluminum 380 T5
Cylinder head: Cast aluminum 356 T7
Intake manifold: Composite
Exhaust manifold: Integrated into cylinder head
Main bearing caps: Iron inserts cast into Bedplate
Crankshaft: Steel
Camshaft: Assembled steel
Connecting rods: Forged powdered metal
Additional features: Extended life spark plugs
Extended life coolant
Electronic throttle control
Variable valve timing
2-stage variable displacement oil pump
Spin on oil filter
Low friction, PVD piston rings
Integrated N & V Cover on Intake Manifold
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
Chevrolet Express (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) < 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90
GMC Savana (Cargo, Pass, Cutaway) > 10K GVW Transmission
MYD-6L90

Compact and lightweight


Featuring four gearsets and five clutches, creative packaging enables the 8L90 to fit the same space as the previous 6L80/6L90 family of six-speed automatics. Extensive use of aluminum and even magnesium also make it more than eight pounds (4 kg) lighter than the six-speed (in Corvette applications). Along with design features that reduce friction, the 8L90 is expected to contribute up to 5-percent greater efficiency, when compared with a six-speed automatic.

Five clutches are used, three at a time, leaving only two open clutches in each gear state. Optimized clutch sizing and off axis binary pump contribute to outstanding spinloss attributes.

All applications feature adaptive shift controls. Several features such as grade braking, Performance Algorithm Shifting, and Driver Shift Control are available on some of the applications. Performance Algorithm Shifting (PAS) monitors how assertively the driver is using engine output and other vehicle sensors to determine at what engine speed to upshift of downshift. Driver Shift Control allows the driver to shift the transmission like a clutchless manual gearbox. Electronic safeguards prevent over-revving if the wrong gear position is selected.

The 8L90 uses VFS control components to monitor clutch pressures with optimum accuracy. The result are faster and more precise shifts.

The 8L90's 32-bit transmission control module (TCM) monitors transmission performance and compensates for normal wear in components such as clutch plates, so performance is consistent for the life of the transmission. The control module also "tests" the components to optimize their interaction on an on-going basis.

The 8L90's controller analyzes and executes commands,the processor microcontroller executes instruction at a rate of 120 Million Instructions per second, and wide-open-throttle upshifts are executed up to eight-hundredths of a second quicker than those of the dual-clutch transmission offered in the Porsche 911.

The torque converter is 258 mm in diameter and features a lock-up clutch, although clutch and converter specifications vary depending on the application. The 8L90 uses electronic controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology, which employs a small, regulated amount of slip to dampen out engine pulses for a smoother running drivetrain, especially during shifting.

Low Maintenance


The 8L90 uses Dex 6 HP Transmisson fluid, which was developed to have a more consistent viscosity profile as well as improved lubrication characteristics.





Overview

The Hydra-Matic 8L90 (M5U) eight-speed automatic transmission for rear- and all-wheel-drive vehicles is a fuel-saving, electronically controlled eight-speed automatic used with GM full-size trucks and SUVs, as well as the Chevrolet Corvette.

Designed and built by GM, the 8L90 transmission speed is expected to contribute up to 5-percent greater efficiency, when compared to the previous six-speed automatic. Smaller steps between gears, compared to the Hydra-Matic 6L90 six-speed automatic, keep the engine within the sweet spot of the rpm band, making the most of its horsepower and torque to optimize performance and efficiency.

For performance driving in the Corvette, the transmission offers full manual control via steering wheel paddles, and unique algorithms to deliver shift performance that rivals the dual-clutch/semi-automatic transmissions found in many supercars – but with the smoothness and refinement that comes with a conventional automatic fitted with a torque converter.

The 8L90 has a torque capacity of 738 lb.-ft. (1000 Nm).

More than 1,100 computer-aided engineering analyses were made during the development of the Hydra-Matic eight-speed transmission family – resulting in more than two dozen patents – to ensure strength, durability, performance and refinement.

Type: Eight speed RWD / AWD, electronically controlled automatic overdrive transmission with torque converter clutch. Clutch-to-clutch architecture, with external transmission control module
Maximum engine power: 650 Hp (485 kW)
Maximum engine torque: 635 lb-ft (860 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 738 lb-ft (1000 Nm)
Gear ratios: M5U
First: 4.560
Second: 2.970
Third: 2.080
Fourth: 1.690
Fifth: 1.270
Sixth: 1.000
Seventh: 0.850
Eigth: 0.650
Reverse: 3.820
Maximum shift speed 7000 rpm
Maximum Vehicle Weights: (Application specific) GVW: 13,200 lbs (6,000 kg)
GCVW: 20,500 lbs (9300kg)
Range selector quadrants: 5 position ( P,R,N,D,M) protected for 6 position (P,R,N,D,M,L)
Case description: 2-piece ( Main, extension, bell integrated with main case )
Case material: Die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: 6 variable force solenoids. One for each clutch and one for TCC.
Shift quality: 6 variable force solenoids. One for each clutch and one for TCC.
Torque converter clutch: Variable Force Solenoid ECCC, 2 path, turbine damper
Converter size: 258mm ( reference )
Fluid type: Dexron High Performance ATF
Fluid capacity: (Application specific) 10.5 L
Transmission weight: (Application specific) 95.5kg - 99kg, including TCM
Pressure taps available: c12345R Clutch
Assembly sites: Toledo, OH
Available Control Features: Multiple Shift Patterns ( Selectable )
Driver Shift Control ( Tap Up / Tap Down )
Enhanced Performance Algorithm Shifting ( PAS/PAL )
Engine Rev Matching on TAP Downshifts
Staged Upshifts in TAP Mode
Selectable Tow / Haul Mode - Truck Only
Engine Torque Management On All Shifts
Altitude and Temperature Compensation
Adaptive Shift Time
Reverse Lockout
Automatic Grade Braking
Additional Features: OBDII
External TCM
Control Interface Protocol - GMLAN
Applications: Chevrolet Silverado
Chevrolet Corvette
Chevrolet Corvette Z06
Cadillac Escalade, Escalade ESV
GMC Sierra
GMC Yukon, Yukon XL
Chevrolet Silverado (Dbl., Crew)
Gen 5 V8-L86-6.2
Chevrolet Corvette Z06 (Cpe. Conv.)
LT4 - 6.2 V-8 SC
Chevrolet Corvette, Corvette Z51 Coupe
LT1 - 6.2 V-8
Cadillac Escalade, Escalade ESV
Gen 5 V8-L86-6.2
GMC Sierra (Dbl., Crew)
Gen 5 V8-L86-6.2
GMC Yukon Denali, Yukon XL Denali Engine
Gen 5 V8-L86-6.2

Compact and lightweight


Featuring four gearsets and five clutches, creative packaging enables the 8L90 to fit the same space as the previous 6L80/6L90 family of six-speed automatics. Extensive use of aluminum and even magnesium also make it more than eight pounds (4 kg) lighter than the six-speed (in Corvette applications). Along with design features that reduce friction, the 8L90 is expected to contribute up to 5-percent greater efficiency, when compared with a six-speed automatic. Featuring four gearsets and five clutches, creative packaging enables the 8L90 to fit the same space as the previous 6L80/6L90 family of six-speed automatics. Extensive use of aluminum and even magnesium also make it more than eight pounds (4 kg) lighter than the six-speed (in Corvette applications). Along with design features that reduce friction, the 8L90 is expected to contribute up to 5-percent greater efficiency, when compared with a six-speed automatic.

Five clutches are used, three at a time, leaving only two open clutches in each gear state. Optimized clutch sizing and off axis binary pump contribute to outstanding spinloss attributes.

All applications feature adaptive shift controls. Several features such as grade braking, Performance Algorithm Shifting, and Driver Shift Control are available on some of the applications. Performance Algorithm Shifting (PAS) monitors how assertively the driver is using engine output and other vehicle sensors to determine at what engine speed to upshift of downshift. Driver Shift Control allows the driver to shift the transmission like a clutchless manual gearbox. Electronic safeguards prevent over-revving if the wrong gear position is selected.

The 8L90 uses VFS control components to monitor clutch pressures with optimum accuracy. The result are faster and more precise shifts.

The 8L90’s 32-bit transmission control module (TCM) monitors transmission performance and compensates for normal wear in components such as clutch plates, so performance is consistent for the life of the transmission. The control module also "tests" the components to optimize their interaction on an on-going basis.

The 8L90’s controller analyzes and executes commands,the processor microcontroller executes instruction at a rate of 120 Million Instructions per second, and wide-open-throttle upshifts are executed up to eight-hundredths of a second quicker than those of the dual-clutch transmission offered in the Porsche 911.

The torque converter is 258 mm in diameter and features a lock-up clutch, although clutch and converter specifications vary depending on the application. The 8L90 uses electronic controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology, which employs a small, regulated amount of slip to dampen out engine pulses for a smoother running drivetrain, especially during shifting.

Low Maintenance


The 8L90 uses Dex 6 HP Transmisson fluid, which was developed to have a more consistent viscosity profile as well as improved lubrication characteristics.


2-MODE HYBRID TRANSMISSION (M99)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

General Motors' patented 2-Mode Hybrid transmission (M99) is the lynchpin for technologically advanced, industry-leading hybrid propulsion for full-size trucks and SUVs. It is an integral component of the hybrid drive system.

The 2-Mode Hybrid transmission enables electric drive up to about 27 mph, helping deliver about 33 percent greater fuel economy in the city when compared with non-hybrid models. It also helps the vehicles deliver the capability and towing capacity expected of full-size trucks and SUVs – including electric drive when towing.

The 2-Mode Hybrid transmission is available in both two and four-wheel drive configurations. It features an open planetary differential. Traction control and wheel-slip monitoring are performed by the stability control and anti-lock braking systems.

Type: 2 Mode Continuous Electric Ratio Hybrid Transmission With 4 Fixed Gears. Integrated Electric Motors With Full Engine Off Operational Capability. ( Strong Hybrid RWD )
Maximum engine power: 332 bhp ( 248 kW )
Maximum engine torque: 367 lb-ft ( 498 Nm )
Maximum gearbox torque: 379 lb-ft ( 515 Nm )
Gear ratios: M99
First: 3.69
Second: 1.70
Third: 1.00
Fourth: 0.73
EV1 Mode 1 Infinity to 1.7
EV2 Mode 2 1.70 to < .74
Reverse: 3.7 Electric Only
Maximum shift speed
Maximum Gross Vehicle Weight: GVW*: 7300 lb ( 3310 kg ), GCVW*: 14000 lb ( 6350 kg ) *For reference only. Not applicable to a specific application.
shift-position quadrant: P, R, N, D, M ( M = Manual Range Selection )
Case description: 3-piece ( Torque Dampener Housing, Main, Extension )
Case material: Die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Continuously varible with optimized selection between EVT and fixed ratio operation
Shift quality: Synchronous shifting between EVT and fixed ratio operation
Individual Electric Motor Power 60 Kwatt
Individual Electric Motor Torque 227 lb-ft ( 308 Nm )
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: Wet: 170kg ( 374lb )
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Assembly Site: GMPT Baltimore, MD
Available Control Features: Vehicle Braking Energy Recovery via Electric Regeneration
Real Time Optimized Ratio Selection
Driver Shift Control ( Tap Up / Tap Down )
Multiple Shift Patterns ( Selectable or Adaptive )
Continuous Engine Torque Management
Altitude and Temperature Compensation
Neutral Idle
Reverse Lockout
Additional Features: Oil Life Monitor
OBDII / EOBD
Integral Electro/Hydraulic Controls Module ( Tehcm )
Control Interface Protocol - GMLAN
Cadillac Escalade Hybrid / Escalade Platinum Hybrid Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Sierra Hybrid Engine
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT
GMC Yukon Hybrid / Yukon Denali Hybrid
Vortec 6.0L V-8 VVT




AISIN-WARNER F40 SIX-SPEED FWD/AWD AUTOMATIC (MDK)

Click image to enlarge


Overview

The Aisin-Warner AF40-6 is a compact, lightweight, electronically controlled six-speed automatic transaxle for front-wheel-drive and all-wheel-drive applications. A unique combination of a conventional five-pinion planetary gear set and a compound Ravignaux gear set – known as a Le Pelletier arrangement – makes the AF40-6 very lightweight and compact. Shifts are managed by a sophisticated transmission control module (TCM) that oversees clutch-to-clutch actuation, while gear changes are accomplished by one clutch engaging the instant the clutch from the previous gear disengages.

The AF40-6 uses a six-element, dual-stage torque converter with a lock-up clutch that helps optimize fuel economy.

Type: six speed front wheel drive, electonically controlled automatic tansmission with torque converter clutch
Maximum engine torque: 400 Nm
Gear ratios: MDK
First: 4.148
Second: 2.370
Third: 1.556
Fourth: 1.555
Fifth: 0.859
Sixth: 0.686
Reverse: 3.394
F/D: 3.200
Ratio spread 6,05:1
Maximum shift speed: 7000 rpm
Min input speed: 650 rpm
Shifting mechanism: Integrated position sensor with TCM
Shifting positions: P,R,N,D (by cable) & Tiptronic (by CAN)
Case material: Die cast aluminum
Center distance: 197 mm
Overall length: 358 mm
Shift pattern: Pulse width modulated solenoid control
Shift quality: Variable bleed solenoid
Torque converter clutch: Pulse width modulated solenoid control
Available control features: Eco Mode
Manual Mode (Tiptronic)
Up Hill Control
Down Hill Control
Shift by Temperature
Brake Assist
Neutral Control
Tip Auto Down
Tip Auto Up
Improved Downshift Protection
Highest Gear in Limp Home
EOBD II, OBD OBDII
Converter size: D241 Large
k-Factor: 207K
Torque ratio: 2.24
Fluid type AW-1 (low friction), lifetime fill
Transmission weight (dry): 85,7 kg
Fluid capacity 6,96 kg (incl. cooler)
Pressure taps available: Access to all clutches & brakes possible
Assmbly site: Anjo City, Japan
Applications: Chevrolet Cruze
Chevrolet Cruze Engine
2.0L Turbo Diesel

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T70/6T75 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout can translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Advanced Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow perfect timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. However, due to the electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T70/6T75 delivers the same accurate shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Compact Dimensions


State-of-the-art dimensions enable spacious packaging and enhance potential safety design opportunities. In addition, styling opportunities for lower hood lines are also enabled by the compact dimensions of the 6T70 and 6T75.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The 246 mm torque converter in the 6T70/6T75 uses a 258-mm single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help dampen engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

Vane-Type Variable-Capacity Pump


A chain-driven, off-axis fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for the shift events and lubrication. The pump features vanes that can vary its output, optimizing the amount of energy the pump needs to operate. Internal tests have demonstrated improved powertrain efficiency with the variable-capacity pump.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure exact dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, and the transmissions operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.



Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6T70 (MH2, MH4, M7W and M7U) and 6T75 (M7X and M7V) transmissions are part of GM's family of technically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics designed to optimize efficiency while delivering exceptional smoothness and an excellent feeling of performance. Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth, however, is an overdrive ratio, which keeps the engine revolutions as low as possible for highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and improving fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Engine range: 3.0L - 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 280 lb-ft (380 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 450Nm 1st gear / 515 Nm 2nd-6th gears
Gear ratios: MH2
First: 4.484
Second: 2.872
Third: 1.842
Fourth: 1.414
Fifth: 1.000
Sixth: 0.742
Reverse: 2.882
Final Drive Ratio: 2.77 ( Effective Final Drive Ratio )
Maximum input speed: Rev 5000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 6500 rpm
5-6 5798 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2619 kg (5775 lbs)
Shifter Positions: P, R, N, D, M, (DSC+/-) & L (MU/MD)
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: 6 Variable Bleed Solenoids
Shift quality: 6 Variable Bleed Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 246mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI; 9986153; Spec:GMN10060
Transmission weight: wet: 102.0 - 102.4 kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 9.0L (9.5 qt)
Bottom pan removal: No
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Transfer design: three-axis design
Assembly sites: Warren, Mich.; Ramos Arizpe, Mexico
Applications: Chevrolet Impala Limitied PPV
Chevrolet Impala Limitied Fleet Only
Chevrolet Impala Limited PPV Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

On-Axis Design


Instead of "folding" the transmission around the end of a transversely mounted engine, which has been one of the dominant GM transaxle design conventions, the 6T70/6T75 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout can translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Advanced Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow perfect timing between shifts, but also take up more space and add more components to the transmission. However, due to the electronic controls, the clutch-to-clutch concept of the 6T70/6T75 delivers the same accurate shift timing.

Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with a precise clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, however, is a freewheeling action, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Compact Dimensions


State-of-the-art dimensions enable spacious packaging and enhance potential safety design opportunities. In addition, styling opportunities for lower hood lines are also enabled by the compact dimensions of the 6T70 and 6T75.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The 246 mm torque converter in the 6T70/6T75 uses a 258-mm single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help dampen engine vibrations and ensure smooth operation.

Vane-Type Variable-Capacity Pump


A chain-driven, off-axis fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for the shift events and lubrication. The pump features vanes that can vary its output, optimizing the amount of energy the pump needs to operate. Internal tests have demonstrated improved powertrain efficiency with the variable-capacity pump.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the transmissions' helical gears are ground and honed to ensure exact dimensions and tolerances. With closer tolerances, the gears are less prone to characteristic whining or humming, and the transmissions operate with exceptional quietness.

Unique Input Shaft Bushings


The input shaft requires no machining for grooves to contain fluid seals, which allows the shaft to retain maximum strength for its size and minimize cost.



Overview

The Hydra-Matic 6T70 (MH2, MH4, M7W and M7U) and 6T75 (M7X and M7V) transmissions are part of GM's family of technically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics designed to optimize efficiency while delivering exceptional smoothness and an excellent feeling of performance. Because of the wide ratio spread, first gear is a very high ratio, which provides brisk acceleration from a stop. Sixth, however, is an overdrive ratio, which keeps the engine revolutions as low as possible for highway cruising, reducing engine friction losses and improving fuel economy.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch. All Wheel Drive model.
Engine range: 3.0L - 3.6L
Maximum engine torque: 280 lb-ft (380 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 450Nm 1st gear / 515 Nm 2nd-6th gears
Gear ratios: MH4
First 4.48
Second 2.87
Third: 1.84
Fourth: 1.41
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.74
Reverse: 2.88
Effective Final Drive Ratio: 2.77, (3.39 on SRX and Equinox with 19" tires )
Maximum input speed: Rev 5000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 6500 rpm
5-6 5798 rpm
Maximum gross combined weight:* 2619 kg (5775 lbs) *For reference only. Not applicable to a specific application
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M, (DSC+/-) & L (MU/MD)
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: 6 Variable Bleed Solenoids
Shift quality: 6 Variable Bleed Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 246mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI; 9986153; Spec:GMN10060
Transmission weight: wet: 102.0 - 102.4 kg
Fluid capacity (approximate): 9.0L (9.5 qt)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: line pressure
Transfer design: three-axis design
Assembly sites: Warren, Mich.; Ramos, Mexico
Buick LaCrosse Engine
3.6L V-6 VVT DI

6T40/6T45 Differences


To enable greater torque capacity, the 6T45 features a 1.25-inch-wide output chain, versus a 1-inch-wide chain in the 6T40. The input gear set of the 6T45 uses five pinion gears, versus four pinions for the 6T40. The case of the 6T45 is slightly larger to accommodate the larger chain system and includes enhanced case ribbing for additional strength.

On-Axis Design


The 6T40/6T45 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow mechanical control between shifts, but also take up more space and add components to the transmission. The 6T40/6T45 features "clutch-to-clutch" controls and advanced electronics to deliver precise shift timing and great driveability. Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, uses a freewheeling mechanisim, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely upon release. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converters in the 6T40 (205 mm) and 6T45 (236 mm) use a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for underhood packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help isolate engine vibrations and provide smooth torque converter clutch apply and release operation.

"IX" Gear Pump


A compact on-axis, fixed-displacement IX gear-type fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for shifting and lubrication. The pump features an IX gear (Drive/Driven) with a machined crescent in the pocket to reduce internal leakage and optimize hydraulic efficiency. The inlet jet nozzle feature in the IX gear-type pump provides for increased pump suction pressure, which helps optimize noise and vibration characteristics.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the helical gears are ground and honed to ensure precise dimensional control. With good dimensional control, the transmission operates with exceptional quietness.



HYDRA-MATIC 6T40 (MH8) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC

HYDRA-MATIC 6T40 (MH8,MHB) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC

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Overview

Six-speed automatic transmissions are integral in GM's initiative to offer vehicles with excellent fuel economy and driveability. Designed for FWD and AWD applications, they are used in many of GM's newest and most popular models. The 6T40 (MH8, MHB) and 6T45 (MH7, MHC) share many components. The 6T45 is rated for greater torque capacity due to specific component enhancements over the 6T40. Each is part of GM's family of technologically advanced, fuel-saving six-speed automatics.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 180 hp ( 134 kW )
Maximum engine torque: 177 lb-ft (240 Nm)
Maximum gearbox torque: 277 lb-ft (375 Nm) - All gears
Gear ratios: MH8
First 4.58
Second 2.96
Third: 1.91
Fourth: 1.45
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.75
Reverse: 2.94
Final Drive Ratio: 3.87
Maximum input speed: Rev 4000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 7000 rpm
5-6 6000 rpm (corresponds to 4476 rpm in 6th after the shift is complete)
Maximum input speed in 6th: 4476 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 1996 kg (4400 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 236mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 82 kg (180.4 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 7.77L (6.56 kg)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Transfer design: Two-axis design, Output Chain
Assembly sites: GMK (Korea), SGM (China), SLP (Mexico), TTO (Toledo).
Applications: Chevrolet Cruze
Chevrolet Sonic
Buick Encore
Buick Regal (Fleet Only)
Verano CX, CXL
Buick Verano CX, Buick Verano CXL Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L I-4 VVT DI
Buick Encore
1.4L DOHC 1-4 Turbo
Buick Regal (Fleet only)
ECOTEC-2.4L I-4 VVT DI
Chevrolet Cruze Engine
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo
Chevrolet Sonic (5 Dr., 4 Dr.)
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo
Chevrolet Trax
1.4L DOHC I-4 Turbo

6T40/6T45 Differences


To enable greater torque capacity, the 6T45 features a 1.25-inch-wide output chain, versus a 1-inch-wide chain in the 6T40. The input gear set of the 6T45 uses five pinion gears, versus four pinions for the 6T40. The case of the 6T45 is slightly larger to accommodate the larger chain system and includes enhanced case ribbing for additional strength.

On-Axis Design


The 6T40/6T45 contains all of the gearing in line with the crankshaft centerline of the engine. The advantages of this layout translate to a shorter overall vehicle length, more interior room and lower powertrain height.

Clutch-to-Clutch Shift Operation


Three planetary gearsets are used with three stationary clutches and two rotating clutches, which save space compared to freewheeling designs. Freewheeling mechanisms allow mechanical control between shifts, but also take up more space and add components to the transmission. The 6T40/6T45 features "clutch-to-clutch" controls and advanced electronics to deliver precise shift timing and great driveability. Gear changes from second to sixth gear ratios are accomplished with clutch-to-clutch action, where the clutch is engaged in one gear at exactly the same time it is released in another. The first-to-second upshift, uses a freewheeling mechanisim, where the second gear clutch engages while the first gear one-way clutch spins freely upon release. This allows a greater degree of smoothness at lower vehicle speeds.

Adaptive Shift Controls


Adaptive shift controls include automatic grade braking, which commands the transmission to remain in a lower gear if the vehicle is decelerating or coasting on a downgrade. This takes advantage of engine braking to prevent unwanted acceleration. This reduces the need for the driver to brake during a hill descent. The control module receives input that monitors brake pedal usage, vehicle acceleration rate, throttle position, and even whether a trailer is connected to the vehicle.

Space-Saving Hyper-Elliptical Torque Converter


The torque converters in the 6T40 (205 mm) and 6T45 (236 mm) use a single-plate lock-up clutch and features a "hyper-elliptical" oval cross-section shape. This design reduces the thickness of the torque converter, reducing the space it needs and keeping the overall width of the engine and transmission as narrow as possible, for underhood packaging advantages. The single-plate lock-up clutch uses GM's electronically controlled capacity clutch (ECCC) technology to help isolate engine vibrations and provide smooth torque converter clutch apply and release operation.

"IX" Gear Pump


A compact on-axis, fixed-displacement IX gear-type fluid pump provides hydraulic pressure for shifting and lubrication. The pump features an IX gear (Drive/Driven) with a machined crescent in the pocket to reduce internal leakage and optimize hydraulic efficiency. The inlet jet nozzle feature in the IX gear-type pump provides for increased pump suction pressure, which helps optimize noise and vibration characteristics.

Ground and Honed Gears


To minimize gear noise, as well as vibration, the helical gears are ground and honed to ensure precise dimensional control. With good dimensional control, the transmission operates with exceptional quietness.


HYDRA-MATIC 6T40 (MHH) SIX-SPEED AUTOMATIC (eAssist)

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Overview

The special MHH eAssist version of the 6T40 transmission uses electrification to increase fuel economy. The added electric power provided by the eAssist system allows for higher gearing which improves steady state efficiency without compromising acceleration, performance or driveability. The eAssist system provides electric assistance at cruising speeds, allowing the driver to accelerate lightly or ascend mild grades and minimize transmission downshifting.

An auxiliary, electric oil pump is added to the 6T40 to keep the transmission launch clutch primed when the engine shuts off at a stop. That keeps the transmission ready to perform when the driver accelerates for a seamless, uncompromised driving experience.

Type: Six speed front-wheel-drive, electronically controlled, automatic overdrive transaxle with an electronically controlled torque converter clutch and an auxiliary, electric-driven transmission oil pump.
Maximum Engine power ( hp/kW ) 180 Hp (134 kW) (gas)
Maximum engine torque: 177 lb.-ft. (240 Nm) (gas)
Maximum gearbox torque: 277 lb.-ft (375 Nm) (gas)
Gear ratios: MHH
First 4.584
Second 2.964
Third: 1.912
Fourth: 1.446
Fifth 1.00
Sixth 0.746
Reverse: 2.94
Final Drive Ratio: 3.87
Maximum input speed: Rev 4000 rpm
1-2 7000 rpm
2-3 7000 rpm
3-4 7000 rpm
4-5 7000 rpm
5-6 6000 rpm
Maximum validated gross vehicle weight: 2260 kg (4982 lbs)
Shifter Posistions: P, R, N, D, M
Case material: die cast aluminum
Shift pattern: Variable Flow Solenoids
Shift quality: Variable Flow Solenoids
Torque converter clutch: Variable Bleed Solenoid
Converter size: 236mm (reference) (diameter of torque converter turbine)
Fluid type: DEXRON® VI
Transmission weight: wet: 90 kg (198 lb)
Fluid capacity (approximate): 8.12L (6.86 kg)
Bottom pan removal: NA
Pressure taps available: Line Pressure
Transfer design: Two-axis design, Output Chain
Assembly sites: TTO (Toledo).
Buick LaCrosse Engine
ECOTEC-2.4L VVT DI eAssist
Buick Regal
ECOTEC-2.4L VVT DI eAssist